Posted on

You are a newly promoted supervisor for Playing with God, a company that makes computer games for a Christian bookstore Answer

Larry Podder or Harry Potter?

You are a newly promoted supervisor for Playing with God, a company that makes computer games for a Christian bookstore. One of the directors on the corporate board is Jon Bakker, a long lost nephew of TV evangelists Jim and Tammy Faye. Jon’s son, Larry Bakker, is a member of your department. He writes the story lines that go into the different games. He has very little computer expertise, but he does have a creative writing degree and writes really great Bible-based game stories. One of his games has won an award in the Christian Video Game arena.

This morning you are served with a lawsuit from Nintendo. It alleges that your last game, Praying with Larry Podder, violates their exclusive right to market games under the Harry Potter label. You are incensed. Larry Podder was the invention of Larry Bakker and was actually a story he made up about himself, drawing on his own childhood experiences. At least, that is what he told you. You personally know that the aunt in the game looks just like Tammy Faye.

To make matters worse, you receive a phone call from your boss that Warner Brothers is preparing a lawsuit, unless you agree right now to pull Praying with Larry Podder from shelves and send them all the profits from the game, to date. Praying was your number one seller this year and could move your company into the first place rankings for christian video games. Your boss, a company vice president, demands to know if the story line is even remotely like Harry Potter. You are horrified to admit you have no idea, having neither played the game nor having read Harry Potter. 

As if this wasn’t bad enough, your boss states, “And why do you suppose Warner Brothers mentioned the Napster case in the call? We’re not hosting file sharing in that game are we?” You are suddenly stricken as you remember that one of the really cool things about the game is that players can go online and share prayers, sheet music for hymns, and Christian music CDs in MP3 format. That was one of the best parts of the game. The vice president states, “The Warner Bros. exec said that his daughter just bought the game and called it the Christian Napster. Furthermore, I have a message from J. K. Rowling’s attorney I have to return next. You better have an answer for this!” He hangs up.

You’re not a lawyer, but you did hear about Napster. It’s time to do some research. You need to call in Larry and find out about this video game.

  1. What things do you need to find out from him?
  2. If you are allowing file sharing on this game, does this open you up to liability for violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act?
  3. If it is true that the game is about Larry Bakker’s life and not Harry Potter’s, what will you need to prove to defend against this lawsuit?
  4. Will being a Christian organization protect you from this lawsuit under the First Amendment? Is it analogous to parody?

Pick one of the above and respond to it, or respond to a classmate’s response. More questions and deeper movement to follow!

 

  1. What things do you need to find out from Larry?
  2. If you are allowing file sharing on this game, does this open you up to liability for violation of the The Digital Millennium Copyright Act?
  3. If it is true that the game is about Larry Bakker’s life and not Harry Potter’s, what will you need to prove to defend against this lawsuit?

 

To get the answer for the above tutorial, please click on the below purchase link.

 

Posted on

Case 6: Midwestern Contemporary Art You are Peggy Fischer. You want to collect the $5 million pledge from Answer

After reading the Case 6: Midwestern Contemporary Art, prepare your case analysis based on the following scenario.

You are Peggy Fischer. You want to collect the $5 million pledge from ***** *****, and previous calls have gone unanswered. Your board wants to sue, but you would like to try some tactics to pressure the Smiths instead of going through with the lawsuit. You put together the following worksheet to help you plan out your influence tactics.

You can make the following assumptions in preparing this worksheet: a) you are able to reach and communicate with the Smiths, b) you are focusing on what to do now rather than what you could have done to avoid the situation, and c) if the MCA board decides to sue, it will be personally embarrassing to you, with a very public acknowledgment that you could not avoid the scandal of a lawsuit.

What were the goals of an original negotiation?

What was your original BATNA? What was its value?

What are your interests (as opposed to your position)?

What are some options for mutual gain?

Identify influence tactics: which ones could you use on the Smiths?

What power bases do you (as Peggy Fischer) have in regards ***** ***** of the Smiths? Explain.

How might you (again as Peggy Fischer) draw on your personal network to influence each of the Smiths? Explain.

Paper must be 4-6 pages.

 

To get the answer, please click on the below purchase link :

 

 

Posted on

Logical I/O provides a general purpose record I/O capability and maintains basic data about files Answer

Logical I/O provides a general purpose record I/O capability and maintains basic data about files.  Searching the Web (Microsoft Web site) describe the I/O operations in Microsoft Windows 7.

 Logical I/O is an I/O which enables its users and applications to access records. It provides a general purpose record I/O capability and also maintains basic data about the files. It is a very efficient I/O to maintain data about files. Its access method is the closest to the user and reflects different file structures. It provides a standard interface between applications and the file systems and the devices which hold the data. There are various kinds of access methods vary depending on the way to access and process data for the device.

It is a well structured I/O and The file organisation and access has file directories, file sharing, record blocking secondary storage management, file system security, Unix file management, Linux virtual file system and windows file system .There are various types of file organisation. Some are discussed in brief below:

Pile: In this type, there is no particular structure, and the data is collected in the order it arrives. He main purpose is to accumulate a mass of data and then save it. The record access is by exhaustive search and the records may have different fields as well.

Sequential file: In this type of file organisation, certain fixed formats are used for records which are of the same length. All fields are the same and field names and lengths are the attributes of the file. The records are stored in key sequence and it uniquely identifies the record.

 Indexed Sequential File: This maintains the key characteristic of the sequential file wherein the records are organized in sequence based on a key field. It has an index to the file to support random access and has an over flow file.

Indexed File: It uses multiple indexes for different key fields. It may contain an exhaustive index that contains one entry for every record in the main file. It may contain a partial index. When a new record is added to the main file, all of the index files must be updated.

Direct or hashed file: This directly accesses a block at a known address. Key field is required for each record.

File management refers to the logical structure of records. It is determined by the way in which files are accessed. There are various criteria for while organisation some of which are mentioned below:

  • Short access time
  • Ease of update
  • Economy of storage
  • Simple maintenance
  • Reliability

The priority shall differ depending on the usage and some may even conflict with each other. As can be seen, logical I/O is very efficient in file organization and management. It maintains a clear file record and access system which facilitates its users.

Windows 7 offer two modes of I/O operations:

Asynchronous: This is more efficient in terms of calling thread, as it allows the thread to continue execution while the I/O operation is lined up by the I/O manager and then it is subsequently performed. However, the application which invoked this operation needs some way to determine when the operation is complete. This mode is particularly used whenever possible to optimize application performance. In this, an application initiates an I/O operation and then can continue processing while the I/O request is fulfilled.

 Synchronous: In this I/O, the application is blocked until the I/O operation completes and this way it is different from the asynchronous I/O.

Windows provides the following four different techniques for signalling I/O completion:

1) Signalling a device kernel object

2) Signalling an event kernel object,

3) Alterable I/O and

4) I/O completion ports.

Also, in Windows 7, a reflector creates the following 3 types of the device objects:

  • Up device object— this is at top of the kernel mode stack made for device & thus is the reflector’s target for IRPs from the I/O manager. When an IRP arrives, the reflector uses interposes communications to forward it to the User Mode Driver host process, in which the framework and driver run. UMDF interprets the request and calls methods in the driver’s event call-back interfaces to handle it. The reflector creates an up device object for each device stack in which it participates.
  • Down device object—this is the reflector’s target for I/O requests that originate in the User Mode Driver and is therefore the default I/O target for the bottom driver in the user mode device stack. A User Mode Driver might issue an I/O request to perform a device I/O control operation on its own device or to retrieve data from another device to complete one of its own requests. The reflector creates a down device object for each stack in which it participates.
  • Control device object—this manages I/O requests to and from the driver manager, which are not part of the normal I/O flow to the driver. Instead, the control device object enables “sideband” I/O between the reflector and the driver manager, which is independent of the normal flow of I/O, power management, and Plug and Play requests. The reflector creates only one control device object per system.

 

References:

William Stallings. Operating systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E,: File Management

The windows operating systems: William Stallings

Microsoft website: Technical details about Windows 7.

Posted on

Describe a specific aspect of a painting by Caravaggio that demonstrates a characteristic of the Baroque style Answer

Describe a specific aspect of a painting by Caravaggio that demonstrates a characteristic of the Baroque style.

Identify which of the three music selections by Gabrieli, Monteverdi, or Vivaldi you like the most (or least) and explain why.

Describe a Baroque painting you feel best illustrates the piece of music that you identified from the three music selections.

 

One key attribute of the Baroque style is that religious pieces were intended to inspire as well to instill a particular story. The Calling of Saint Matthew uses light to illustrate an interesting story. In this painting the beam of light is used to focus on Jesus calling Levi to become a disciple. This lighting technique also illustrates that the characters may be confused, reluctant and or uncertain. Another interesting thing is that the characters illustrated were not dressed in the style of the times of Jesus but of the times of the artist. This allowed the intended audience of its time to closer relate to the story being told.

By far I enjoyed the music by Vivaldi. I first have a strong appreciation for violin and stringed instruments. His pieces much reminded me of Yani’s earlier pieces as there were never any words, and the music always seemed very colorful, vibrant and joyful. Many may disagree but I am not a big opera fan at all, so I must say my least favorite of the three would be Monteverdi.

As mentioned above I feel as though the music of Vivaldi was very “happy”, vibrant and colorful. With that said I feel this to be portrayed in the paining Sirani’s Virgin and Child of 1663. Painted by Sirani and also was the daughter of another painter. She was known to depict miracles in the form of art as if they were every day events.

Sayre, H. M. (2011). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change (Vol. 2). New York: Pearson Education. Retrieved October 7, 2013

 

One key attribute of the Baroque style is that religious pieces were intended to inspire as well to instill a particular story. The Calling of Saint Matthew uses light to illustrate an interesting story. In this painting the beam of light is used to focus on Jesus calling Levi to become a disciple. This lighting technique also illustrates that the characters may be confused, reluctant and or uncertain. Another interesting thing is that the characters illustrated were not dressed in the style of the times of Jesus but of the times of the artist. This allowed the intended audience of its time to closer relate to the story being told.

By far I enjoyed the music by Vivaldi. I first have a strong appreciation for violin and stringed instruments. His pieces much reminded me of Yani’s earlier pieces as there were never any words, and the music always seemed very colorful, vibrant and joyful. Many may disagree but I am not a big opera fan at all, so I must say my least favorite of the three would be Monteverdi.

As mentioned above I feel as though the music of Vivaldi was very “happy”, vibrant and colorful. With that said I feel this to be portrayed in the paining Sirani’s Virgin and Child of 1663. Painted by Sirani and also was the daughter of another painter. She was known to depict miracles in the form of art as if they were every day events.

Sayre, H. M. (2011). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change (Vol. 2). New York: Pearson Education. Retrieved October 7, 2013

 

One key attribute of the Baroque style is that religious pieces were intended to inspire as well to instill a particular story. The Calling of Saint Matthew uses light to illustrate an interesting story. In this painting the beam of light is used to focus on Jesus calling Levi to become a disciple. This lighting technique also illustrates that the characters may be confused, reluctant and or uncertain. Another interesting thing is that the characters illustrated were not dressed in the style of the times of Jesus but of the times of the artist. This allowed the intended audience of its time to closer relate to the story being told.

By far I enjoyed the music by Vivaldi. I first have a strong appreciation for violin and stringed instruments. His pieces much reminded me of Yani’s earlier pieces as there were never any words, and the music always seemed very colorful, vibrant and joyful. Many may disagree but I am not a big opera fan at all, so I must say my least favorite of the three would be Monteverdi.

As mentioned above I feel as though the music of Vivaldi was very “happy”, vibrant and colorful. With that said I feel this to be portrayed in the paining Sirani’s Virgin and Child of 1663. Painted by Sirani and also was the daughter of another painter. She was known to depict miracles in the form of art as if they were every day events.

 

Sayre, H. M. (2011). The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change (Vol. 2). New York: Pearson Education. Retrieved October 7, 2013

 

Caravaggio’s style of painting is easily recognizable for its realism, unprecedented naturalism and he had this uncanny ability to depict religious scenes with an unprecedented approachability and human feelings and sentiment. Caravaggio showed a great mastery of technique such as unique way of treating light and colour. He was the the painter of earthly pleasures and also knew how to depict love e.g. his work of the young blonde girl crying in “The Entombment”. The young mother chosen as a model for the painting of Sant’Agostino is the perfect example of a beautiful woman whose sensuality embodies humanity. The main characteristics of Baroque painting include realistically-depicted human figures, a vivid use of color, and extensive use of foreshadowing techniques which can be seen in the work of Caravaggio.

Among all the three music selections by Gabrieli, Monteverdi, or Vivaldi, I like Monteverdi’s work the most. Monteverdi mastered a new, text-based musical form, the opera. Monteverdi had an unusual way of telling the story through a variety of musical genres—choruses, dances, and instrumental interludes. He could achieve what his operatic predecessors could only imagine i.e.a work that was both musically and dramatically satisfying, one that could explore the full range of sound and, with it, the full range of psychological complexity.

I can think of any Baroque painting that can illustrate Monteverdi’s work is Jacopo Guarana, Apollo Conducting a Choir of Maidens. 1776. Ospedaletto church was the performance space for the girls of the orphanage of Santa Maria dei Derelitti.

 

References: Patrizi, M.L. (2012). Best of : Michelangelo da Caravaggio. New York, NY, USA: Parkstone International.

Posted on

Operating a business in an ethical manner takes time, effort and commitment. What are the key elements to a company having successful organizational ethics Answer

Operating a business in an ethical manner takes time, effort and commitment. What are the key elements to a company having successful organizational ethics? What can we do as managers to encourage ethical behavior and to raise ethical standards in our organizations?

When considering ethics in a business environment we use the words, code of ethics. The code of ethics of a business are usually what the business expects from their employees such as interaction between an employee and customers or clients and even other co-workers. Integrity is a huge factor in business ethics. In business ethics it is important that top management individuals lead by example. Honesty is a key factor in business ethics. If people in the business are not being honest with each person in then how is someone supposed to trust others. If managers and employees are not honest with each other it could lead to customers finding it hard to believe in the product in which it is selling or in the people in which are selling the product. It is important for a customer to feel as if you value business ethics and are truthful. If you make a promise to a customer it is important to keep that promise to the best of your ability because this is the quickest way to get a customer to lose faith in you and word of mouth travels fast. Another huge factor of business ethics is keeping the utmost confidentiality especially in online businesses where some people are very wary of someone getting his/her information such as credit card information. There are many things one must consider in the online business department no matter what the business may consist of because of security reasons and many other reasons in which you want to ensure your customers you are taking all care and precautions on. Employees should be able to express any concerns they may have as well without fear of retaliation.

Ethics are values that we imbibe as kids. In fact, ethics are an inherent trait that stems from the human desire to socialize and get along well with other humans. They are not enforced and come from “within.” Ethics comes from within a person’s moral sense and desire to preserve his/her self-respect. I think a key element of any business ethics program is to create an environment where an employee can come forward to report any wrongdoing or non-adherence to ethics without fear of retaliation. An organization should foster an open environment to encourage employees to report wrongdoing. It is also the organization’s responsibility to protect employees from retaliatory attacks. Business ethics is a critical component that helps an organization achieves success. Most organizations expect employees to follow a code of ethics, which are sometimes simply referred to as “rules.” This code encompasses various standards of integrity with respect to relationships with customers, other employees and others associated with the organization. Following ethical practices can earn trust for the organization that translates into long-term benefits.

Business Ethics is something that has nowadays become a common practice for any corporate/company to succeed in the market place in the long term. An unethical action may give the company short-term benefits such as cost or time savings, but the benefit will not be sustainable. The importance of following business ethics must come from top management. As in this week video analysis, Maria points out the importance of ethics to Andrew and Warren where she talks about responsibility to investors and the customers getting offended by playing those violent video games. Ultimately, it will be CanGo’s image which will be affected in the long run. Creating an Open Environment, integrity, trustworthiness, fair dealings, ethical communication are some of the key elements of business ethics which are extremely important for the business to thrive in the long run. Creating an open environment would be a key element for successful ethics. The open environment would create an environment where an employee came forward to report something there would be no fear of retaliation. Organizational ethics are transparent in a company only when upper personal is actively exercising these values. Setting a good example for employees to follow is essential. Making ethics noticeable in a work place creates the dynamics and overall environment of a company. Ethics within a company are essential because they set the overall profile of a company, they set guidelines as to how perform business and in what manner.

Business ethics is a critical component that helps an organization achieves success. Most organizations expect employees to follow a code of ethics, which are sometimes simply referred to as “rules.” This code encompasses various standards of integrity with respect to relationships with customers, other employees and others associated with the organization. Following ethical practices can earn trust for the organization that translates into long-term benefits.

Following ethical business practices is valuable for long-term gains and success. Corporate executives should never consider adhering to ethics as a hindrance to success. An unethical course of action may give you short-term benefits such as cost or time savings, but the benefit will not sustain you and you will end up wasting time and money to fix the problem. The importance of following business ethics must come from top management. Shady business dealings do not foster a positive environment for growth in the organization. Integrity, honesty and a commitment to doing what is morally right are key elements I believe are essential to any organization being successful ethically. This is often difficult when business practices are geared towards earning profits above everything else and leadership or management does not put adequate or any emphasis on ethics.

Posted on

Contrast qualitative, historical projection, and causal forecasting models. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each of these models Answer

Contrast qualitative, historical projection, and causal forecasting models. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each of these models?

Three demand forecasting models are qualitative, historical projection methods and causal methods. In the qualitative methods, experts use judgment, prior experiences, surveys, or comparative techniques to provide quantitative estimates about the future. A team of experts provide insights about the forecast or some predictive analysis of the demand forecast. This method is usually adopted when there is not much past data available for the demand. When historical data is available, and the trend and seasonable variations are stable and well defined, then we go for historical projection methods. The basic premise is that the future time pattern will be a replication of the past. The quantitative nature of the historical projection methods encourages the use of statistical models. These models work because of the inherent stability of the historical projection methods in the short run. Cause-and-effect is based on the principle that there are one or more factors are related to demand and that the relationship between cause and effect can be used to estimate future demand. Examples of cause-and-effect forecasting include simple and multiple regressions. In simple regression, demand is dependent on only one variable, whereas in multiple regressions, demand is dependent on two or more variables. Judgmental methods can be sometimes preferred over other techniques as it has an ability to incorporate unusual events, and if there is difficulty of obtaining the data necessary for quantitative techniques.

Posted on

Why should the government intervene in situations of market failure? Include your example enough economic analysis Answer

Why should the government intervene in situations of market failure? Include your example enough economic analysis and tools that the course content is reflected. This is an opportunity for you to “bridge” the material on regulation with aspects of market failure and with what we have been reading about corporate social responsibility. Please do not include “macroeconomic” based answers as this has not been part of the course content. Also please include an example. Again the expectation is that you will include thoughts about market failure, regulation, and corporate social responsibility within the context of an example you create and document.

Answer – According to Friedman, the important responsibility of a businessman is to earn as much profits as he can by conforming to their basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodies in ethical custom. For example, the manager of a corporation such as hospitals or schools may not earn much profits from their operations as their focus is on providing services to the society. In fact, the manager who owns the corporations have the clear criterion of performance where voluntary contractual arrangement exists. Over the centuries, it has been debated by many economists and politicians that whether the government should intervene in the workings of the private companies in the economy in order to regulate them with more efficiency. In real world market situations, it has been impossible for the private business to function smoothly. For example, it is mandatory to maintain sovereign in the economy to create a strong military in the country which can only be done by the state. Moreover, government also plays role in setting the minimum wages and price in the market on the basis of the supply and demand situations in the market. It has been done in order to avoid the market failure in the society and to make them function smooth. In April 2012, the “Rebuild America Act” was introduced by Sen, Tom Harkin as an extended help to the American manufacturers and also to help the young Americans to get more education. It basically provides financial help and the tools to rebuild more and more bridges, roads, schools and job training facilities and more such opportunities and protect many U.S companies from other predatory and monopolistic trade practices. Hence, we can understand the importance of government intervention here in the private economy in order to make them stronger by regulating and introducing more rules. The businessman has other corporate social responsibilities as well apart from just raising their profits. Otherwise, it would become difficult for him to survive in the society in the long run. Government always keeps an eye on the operations of the business and their socially optimum output and keeps on regulating the market by introducing several acts so that market does not fail. (Friedman, September 13, 1970 )

Government also provides health insurance benefits to the society which is necessary to create a healthy background of the people in the economy. In this way, government not only forces business enterprises to perform their social responsibility but it also performs and provide several services to the society. In case of market failure situations such as monopoly power, externalities, public goods, etc. the government interferes and make changes in the workings of the market so that the market does not fail. In order to avoid monopolistic situation government has created several regulatory bodies such as OFGEM, OFWAT and ORR. They regulate the workings of the gas and electricity markets, tap water and railways. Taxes such as Pigouvian Tax have been imposed in the case of negative externalities so that businesses concentrate more on the socially optimum output.(Assaf, 2011)

 

 

References

Assaf, D. (2011). GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONIN INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTUREPROTECTION. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION, 1-15.

Friedman, M. (September 13, 1970 ). The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. New York: The New York Times Magazine .

 

 

Posted on

You have been assigned to do a make-or-buy analysis. What factors will you likely include in your make-or-buy evaluation Answer

You have been assigned to do a make-or-buy analysis. What factors will you likely include in your make-or-buy evaluation? (Points : 20)

The make-or-buy decision requires consideration of many factors. Factors that influence the make-or-buy decision include both quantitative factors such as cost and time and qualitative factors such as the suppliers’ trustworthiness and the quality of their products. This includes all relevant factors that cannot be reduced to numbers, such as the experience of the business’ production department and the quality of its management. For example, it might be possible that the business has no experience in producing a particular product and its prior experience in producing other products cannot be applied. The decision to buy creates a project that will be implemented in cooperation with an outside organization that is not entirely within the buyer’s control. An element of uncertainty and risk gets introduced for the buyer if it wants to outsource the project.

The contract binds buyer and seller to one another but does not place one under the other’s managerial control. Sometimes the seller’s economic position may be so powerful, however, that the terms and conditions of the contract are ineffective in protecting the interests of the buyer.

The seller may find that the buyer has specified its needs inadequately or defectively; the seller’s marketing department has oversold its products, services, or capabilities or some faulty communication has transpired between the two parties during contract formation. In any of these cases, performance may be much more demanding than originally contemplated and may even be beyond the seller’s capabilities. Communication breakdowns, misunderstandings, conflicts, and disputes can occur between organizations. Although the contract is intended to provide a remedy to the injured party if the other fails to fulfill its contractual obligations, it is not a guarantee. Legal remedies may be uncertain and, even if attained, may not fully compensate the injured party for the other party’s failure.

The make-or-buy decision can be a critical one for any organization.

References: Garrett, G.A. (2010). World Class Contracting. 5th Edition. CCH Incorporated. pp 24

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/to-qualitative-measures-makeorbuy-decisions-35918.html

Posted on

Gather three of your favorite packaged foods; perhaps one from each: breakfast, lunch and dinner Answer

Are You Sure It’s Fat Free?” “The reason that a 97% fat free food is too good to be true is that the food industry bases its figure on the weight of the product and not the calories the product contains (Bluman, 2005)”. In this exercise we will discover if the foods we eat really are fat free. I will be using Oatmeal for breakfast, Spaghetti and Meatball for lunch and Chow Mein Noodles for dinner.

Problem: Gather three of your favorite packaged foods; perhaps one from each: breakfast, lunch and dinner. Use the model explained in the “Are You Sure It’s Fat Free?” to analyze, through the mathematical formula explained the fat content and protein content from your foods. To analyze the protein content use 4 calories per gram of protein, rather than the 9 calories for grams of fat.

In the text of “mathematics in our world” on page 236, it sparks the interest of readers because it challenges the question “is it really fat free?” It goes on to give an example of a can meat that states that is 97% fat free.   The text used the value of the total volume of the item, calories per serving, grams of fat per serving and a multiplier of 100%. The total volume was 10 ounces; the text then converted ounces to grams. 1 ounce is equal to 29 grams; making 10×29= 290 grams. Then the book divided 290 by the 9 grams of fat and then multiplied the answer by 100%

9/290 x 100% = 3.1%

Once the 3.1% is subtracted by 100% it shows that the content of the canned product is 97% fat free according to the manufactures’ mathematics. The text then goes on to state the real math behind it. Each gram of fat was converted into calorie, for one gram of fat it equals 9 calories. 9 grams of fat x 9 calories each equals 81 calories. 81 were then divided by the number of calories on the label 240. 81/240 was multiplied by 100%= 33.75%

81/240 x 100=33.75

This suggests that the 10oz can is 66.25% fat free as oppose to 97% as the label claims.

I found this to be misleading in an away. The manufactures’ are making claim in regards to actual grams of fat, not calories from fat so the above calculations are not proving anything but calories, calories where not in question; grams of fat are.

I followed up with a few items in my household to further examine the actual calories from fat per serving. In my family we do not purchase our groceries based on how “fat free” it is. So these are a few “non-reduced” items.

The first up was a can of Campbell’s soup.

200 calories per 8oz serving

10g of fat

So the first step is to convert ounces to grams 8 x 29=232grams. Next divide the grams of fat per serving by the grams per serving. 10/232 and multiply by 100%

10/232 x 100%= 4.3%; the can has no claim to be any percentage of fat free however 95.7% doesn’t seem too bad if you ask me.

Now to prove how many calories come from fat; the first step is to convert grams of fat into calories. As stated above each gram of fat equals 9 calories. So per serving of soup 10 x 9= 90 calories. 90 calories divided by calories per serving 90/ 200 x 100%=45%. Based on this math, almost half of the calories in a serving of soup are from fat! But again the soup company made no claim on how “fat free” their product really was.

And for protein

8 x 4= 32

32/232 x 100%= 13.8%;

The next product was egg nog, a beverage made for the holidays.

Each serving is 4oz or 116 grams.

Each serving has 8 grams of fat and 170 calories.

Manufactures’ math:

8/116 x 100%= 6.8%

Calories from fat math:

8 x 9=72

72/170 x 100%= 42.3%

Protein

8 x 4=32

32/170 x 100%= 18.8%

Lastly I came across a lean cuisine in my freezer.

Each serving is 8 oz. or 227 grams according to the packaging.

270 calories and

7 grams of fat

Manufactures’ math:

7/227 x 100%= 3.1%, not too bad.

Calories from fat math:

7 x 9= 28 fat calories

28/270 x 100%= 23.3%

Protein

7 x 4= 63 fat calories

63/270 x 100%= 10.4%

After doing a few of these examples I came across a couple of formulas to somewhat simplify how to deduce these values.

For the manufactures’ math, if;

x= calories

y= grams of fat

z= ounces of product.

z x 29= ounces to grams= Zg

Y/Zg x 100%= Factory %

For fat from calories math, if:

1gram of fat = 9 calories

x= calories

y= grams of fat

z= ounces of product.

y x 9= calories from fat= Ycal

Ycal/X x 100%= actual calories from fat

I personally do not believe too many things are fat free only because almost everything has some amount of fat in it. This assignment was helpful in a way where I am more apt to do the math for myself using above formulas to see if what I am reading on the labels are close to claim.

 

Reference

Bluman, A.G. (2005) Mathematics In Our World. 1st Ed. Ashford University Custom.

United States: McGraw Hill.

Posted on

Below is shown the weekly output of a fabrication process and data for labor and material inputs Answer

Below is shown the weekly output of a fabrication process and data for labor and material inputs. Note the following:   – Standard selling price is $125 per unit.  – Overhead is charged weekly at the rate of $1,500 plus .5 times direct labor cost.  – Hourly wage is $16 in a 40-hour week. – Material cost is $10 per foot.

Week Output # Workers Material (ft)
1 392 5 2790
2 408 6 2790

What is the average multifactor productivity?

Ans: Multifactor productivity Indicates the ratio of many or all resources (inputs) to the goods and services produced (outputs).

Multifactor productivity for week 1

Labor Cost = 16 * 40 *5 = $ 3200

Material Cost = 2790 * 10 = $ 27900

Overhead Cost = 1500 + 0.5 *3200 = 1500 + 1600 = $3100

=   392 / ( 3200 + 27900 + 3100) = 392/34200 = 0.01146 units output per dollar Cost

 

Multifactor productivity for week 12

Labor Cost = 16 * 40 *6 = $ 3840

Material Cost = 2790 * 10 = $ 27900

Overhead Cost = 1500 + 0.5 *3840 = 1500 + 1920 = $3420

=   408 / ( 3840 + 27900 + 3420) = 408 / 35160 = 0.01160 units output per dollar Cost

 

average multifactor productivity = (0.01146 + 0.01160)/ 2 = 0.01153 units output per dollar Cost