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The use of human embryonic stem provides future hope for the treatment of many diseases Answer

The use of human embryonic stem provides future hope for the treatment of many diseases. Stem cell research helps to understand basic mechanisms of development and differentiation of humans beings and it also provides hope to find treatments of some common diseases like diabetes, injury of spinal cord, Parkinson’s disease, and myocardial infarction (heart attack). However, this stem cell research faces many legal and ethical obligations many which are affecting the research for development of these cell-replacement therapies. The greatest challenge for this research is to maintain respect for human life and overcome the ethical concerns. The origin of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is filled with differences of opinion about the inception of human personhood. There are various concerns arising related to sensitive downstream research. There are concerns regarding the permission to donate materials for research, early clinical trials of hSC therapies, and error of hSC research. These ethical and policy concerns are required to be examined along with scientific challenges to make certain that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically and legally suitable method.

Stem cell research raises general questions about the suitable distribution of resources of government and private in the field of biomedical science. In the United States, the matter of when human life begins has been extremely divisive. People know that embryos grow to become human beings and if embryos are implanted in the uterus of female, she can give birth to a normal child. However, some people believe that an embryo is a living individual with the same moral significance as an adult or a new born child. Because of religious faith and moral sincerity, people believe that “human life begins at conception” and thus embryo is a person. According to this analysis, an embryo has interests and rights that must be respected. Therefore, from this viewpoint, to take a blastocyst and remove the inner cell mass to obtain an embryonic stem cell line is equivalent to murder. When frozen embryos are donated then many ethical concerns arises such as, informed approval from the woman or couple donating the embryo, approval from donors of the gamete who are involved in the conception of the embryo, and the privacy of information of donor.

Stem cell research can provide information that will allow certain individuals to live longer and improved lives. It can also help to treat diseases whose cure has not been found out till now. However, effectiveness of treatment using stem cell research is also a major concern. People who participate in debates regarding stem cell technology should also identify lack in the health system. Encouragement for stem cell research should include support for a better health system. If there is no improvement in the health care systems then any curative benefits which can be developed through stem cell research will be unfairly restricted to fortunate patients who can have access to best health care services.

 

Reference:

Dresser, R. (2010). Stem Cell Research as Innovation: Expanding the Ethical and Policy Conversation. Journal of Law Medicine & Ethics38(2), 332-341. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2010.00492.x

 

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An independent movie producer with a modest but loyal fan base is short of funds for her next movie Answer

An independent movie producer with a modest but loyal fan base is short of funds for her next movie. Knowing that a bank loan is an unrealistic option, she is considering crowdfunding. But she is not very familiar with it or how to go about starting and conducting a crowdfunding campaign. Prepare a report for the producer explaining the different approaches to crowdfunding, including the equity funding approach. Alert the producer to any drawbacks that might make people less willing to contribute to funding her movie and positives that might make people more likely to fund her movie. Conclude your report with a recommendation of which crowdfunding approach you believe would be most effective for this independent movie producer. As part of your preparation for your report, view the article from the text (pp. 269-270): Is It Safe to Invest Through Crowd-funding? Follow the report format outlined below: -Describe and define crowdfunding (sometimes shown as crowd funding). But sure to include the different approaches to crowdfunding, including equity funding. -What are the advantages to the movie producer? -What are the advantages and disadvantages to the potential funder? Include such concepts as asymmetric information and investment risk. -Recommend one approach that would be most appropriate for this producer and remember to include the reasons why you selected it. -Remember that citations go into the body of the report and the references go at the end of the report. Both are required. Case Studies follow the following general format: •An Introduction where you explain the situation and the decision(s) facing the firm. Most, if not all, of this information will be in the case. •Alternatives: here you define terms as needed and identify the alternative available to the firm. •Evaluate the alternatives: discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of the relevant alternatives. •Recommendation and conclusion: select one of the alternatives as your recommendation. Support your recommendation with information used in your case analysis. Provide specific and detailed recommendations. •Use additional resources as needed, but remember to cite and reference them properly using APA style. Note: For a short case such as this one, the Alternatives discussion can be combined with the Evaluation discussion as single section of your case. Be sure to include APA formatted citations and references. Citations in the body of your case and references are required.

 

Crowd Funding:-

Crowd funding is the approach in which the funds are raised by monetary contribution from a huge amount of people mostly through internet. It is the tool to raise funds which is beyond the general tools of raising funds. There are different types of crowd funding available such as reward based, debt based, litigation, charity and equity. In reward base system, there are two types of methods such as keep it all and all or nothing. In Keep it All method the entrepreneurs set a fund raising goal and keeps the full amount of money with them whether the goal is achieved or not but in the other method they only kept money with them if the specific goal is achieved for which the fund was raised. In equity financing different individual supports the efforts of other organization on the collective basis by providing the finance. In debt based the borrowers apply online general for free and their applications are evaluated by some software deployed at platforms through which there credit worthiness and interest rate are also identified. In litigation method the investors invest in legal cases and get the money if the cases get success. Last but not least, the charitable method includes the efforts of the individual basis on the collective basis to support charitable causes. There could be different positive and negative elements which might affect the producer by raising the funds via crowd funding. The positive issues could be that the people who are interested in the concept of the movie and those who are real fans will give their money to the producer. Another benefit the product could have is if he uses the reward base system to raise fund then he can set the percentage to be given to those who will invest the money if the movies got hit. Negative issues he might face includes that it will take much time to generate so huge funds through this type of techniques. Those who are not fans and do not trust the producer will not give their money to support as well as other methods such as charity and litigation could not be used by the producer because the movies is not legal neither it contains any charitable causes. The advantage to the movie producer will be that he will not have to pay any interest payments if he uses the methods of crowd funding except the debt funding. The dis-advantage to the investor could be that he might lose his money if the goal is not achieved or the loss of extra money which he could get if the movie gets success.

Recommendation:-

All the methods are the good enough according to their qualities and selection of the method depends on the need of the fund raiser. For the producer the reward base system is the most appropriate way to raise the funds for the movie because in it there are several benefits exists for him. Firstly, he will not have to pay any interest payments unlike debt method. Secondly, he can leverage the investor to attract more funds by putting incentive like the share in the profit if the movie goes hit, etc.

Reference:-

Entrepreneur [September, 2015]. Crowd Funding. Retrieved from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/228125

 

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As a project manager, dealing with conflict is part of the job. There are many sources of conflict; one source Answer

As a project manager, dealing with conflict is part of the job. There are many sources of conflict; one source that is often overlooked is the manager. Based on the Week 4 reading and lecture, what managerial actions can cause workplace conflict? What can be done to remedy these issues?

The Managerial Actions That Cause Workplace Conflicts are:
Poor communications – When employees are not informed of major decisions that affect their workplaces or they are not involved in the decision-making process, then it may cause serious workplace discontent or conflict. This can cause serious conflict between the manager and their subordinates.

Resource allocation and alignment is not proper – When there is inadequate nos. of resources or unskilled resources are allocated to the project, this will lead to project uncertainties and eventually, the employees start blaming their managers for the project failure.

Conflicting values or actions and interpersonal dynamics – Sometimes, there can be conflicting value systems prevailing between the employee and their managers. There could be incompatibility in the working relationship and way of thinking which could lead to the workplace Conflicts.

Inconsistent, missing, or uninformed leadership – Lot of times, managers don’t take a firm stand on the issues in the work place which leads to employee dissatisfaction and affects their morale. Also, the managers may not be consistent in their approach and often seem changing their approach in the work place.

Following things can be done to remedy these issues
– Managers should regularly review job descriptions and get employee’s input. They should also make sure that there is complete clarity of roles and responsibilities to the employees.
– Managers should take initiative to build strong relationships with all subordinates and regularly meet them and have One-O-One meeting with them.
– They should get continuous updates, reports, their accomplishments, challenges and issues from the team members.
– Should do career planning of their employees and have a proper training plan for each of their employees.
– Also, managers should consider having anonymous suggestion box in the workplace in which employees can provide suggestions. This will make sure that suggestions and inputs to improve the workplace are incorporated in company’s policies and the company is able to take care of employee’s concerns.

References: http://managementhelp.org/interpersonal/conflict.htm

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An open label study (where participants are aware of the treatment they are taking) is conducted to assess the time to pain relief Answer

  1. An open label study (where participants are aware of the treatment they are taking) is conducted to assess the time to pain relief following treatment in patients with arthritis. The following linear regression equations are estimated relating time to pain relief measured in minutes (dependent variable) to participant’s age (in years), gender (coded 1 for males and 0 for females) and severity of disease (a score ranging from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicative of more severe arthritis):

Time to Pain Relief = -24.2 + 0.9 Age

Time to Pain Relief = 11.8 + 19.3 Male Gender

Time to Pain Relief = 3.2 + 0.4 Severity

Time to Pain Relief = -19.8 + 0.50 Age + 10.9 Male Gender + 0.2 Severity

 

  1. What is the expected time to pain relief for a male following treatment?Time to Pain Relief = 11.8 + 19.3 * 1 = 31.1 minutes
  2. What is the expected time to pain relief for a participant aged 50 following treatment?Time to Pain Relief = -24.2 + 0.9 * 50 = 20.8 minutes
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of the computer-assisted audit technique known as parallel simulation Answer

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the computer-assisted audit technique known as parallel simulation?

The advantages of using parallel simulation is the tests can be run independently. The sample size is not costly to expand and real data is used so it allows verification to source documents.

The disadvantage could be the client’s software out preforms the auditor’s software or the auditors needs to be trained to understand the clients programs.

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The Logic in the Motor Vehicle Brake System Answer

The Logic in the Motor Vehicle Brake System Answer

 

The Brake System

Name:

Institution of economics

The Brake System

The Logic in the Motor Vehicle Brake System

The brake system is very essential in the cooling of the motor vehicle systems. The system works in the way that the pump moves the cooling device from the brake of the vehicle to the motor vehicle engine cooling system. This provides a thermal mass in order to dissolve brake energy. The breaks are kept cold through the taking off of the load from the service breaks. Furthermore, this results in reduction in maintenance of the vehicle and decrease, in the pedal effort. This also leads to increase in lifespan of the brakes of the vehicle. Cooler brakes also guarantee the safety of the vehicle. Owen and Eichhorn (2007) assert that, the cooling of the breaks decreases the stopping distance of the motor vehicle, hence, improving efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle. The system has a hand-controlled unit, which contains five power settings. These settings enable the adjustment of the strength of the break with regard to an individual’s need. These settings include revolutionary braking cruise control, which enables the setting of maximum speed when navigating through slopes. It leads to maintaining of a constant speed according to the grade variance.

History of the Brake System

The first brake lever was invented at the times of Roman Empire. This lever exerted pressure upon a wooden block against a cart wheel in a bid to slow the speed of a cart through the use of friction. This brake technology prevailed for some time. Furthermore, the early nomadic people used this technological principle of pressing the block against the wheel of the cart. However, there is the incorporation of the disk brakes and other back-up systems into the working of the block-wheel brake system. Cast iron brake shoes have replaced the wooden blocks which were employed by the early folks. Notwithstanding, there were frequent runaways, which called for the introduction of more efficient braking system.

The 20th Century

This century brought a paradigm shift in the motor vehicle industry. This owes to the fact that, there was the advancement of the braking system in this century. The development of the trucking and the automotive industry culminate in the updating of the braking system. For instance, the old vehicles employed band brakes. This was followed by the introduction of the drum brakes, which were mechanically applied through a linkage. This was followed by a major advancement in the braking technology during the introduction of the hydraulic systems in 1920-1940 (Mavrigian and Carley, 2008). The system introduced consistent force distribution. This has resulted in a decrease in stoppage distance by a great magnitude. This efficiency results from the improvement in the fade resistance. The only common feature of the hydraulic system and the drum brake are that the latter’s design flaw happens to be the thermal mass. This implies that, the application of brakes increases the temperature. This aspect is manifest in the race cars, which exhibited red-hot brakes during racing. The stresses increase when the brake of the motor vehicle gets hot. This also results in a decrease, in the car performance. This is an enormous challenge in the motor industry. This owes to the fact that, it is difficult to design sufficient braking, which can guarantee absorption of all the thermal energy required by the system. The disc brakes were prevalent during the 1960’s. They were applied in cars and trucks.

Retarders

The failure of the friction brakes to absorb energy for long durations led to the invention of the retarders, which provide a retarding force to the braking system. These devices help in the application of brakes especially in sloppy areas. Moreover, they provide safety and a prolonged economic life of the brakes. The safety this device provides is due to the ability of energy absorption. On the other hand, the lifespan of the brakes is prolonged due to the reduction on the operating temperature and reduction in the long downgrades usage. The most common retarders used in the modern world include the engine brakes, electromagnetic, hydrodynamic and exhaust brake retarders.

Engine Brakes

These kinds of retarders are appropriate for large tractors and trailers. The retarders absorb energy through the conversion of the diesel engine into an air compressor device. However, this retarder’s shortcoming is that its working produces much noise, hence, rendering it ineffective in some parts of the world.

Exhaust Brakes

These retarders are applicable in diesel engines, which have standard transmissions. They are ineffective in automatic gas engines of automobiles. They are strategically positioned after the exhaust manifold in order to exert pressure on the engine exhaust. This is possible through closure of the gate valve of the hydraulic system. The retarders are efficient at high speeds. In addition, they are the best to apply in downhill braking, because they perform best with appropriate powertrain.

Electromagnetic Retarders

This category of retarders provides the retarding force through the shearing of magnetic flux lines. They are a driveline braking system, whereby the automobile’s engine is exclusive. They are applied in the heavy duty applications with regard to similar retarders. However, they can be separately applied without any back-up in buses for transit and school buses. According to Mavrigian and Carley (2008), these retarders draw heavily on the electrical energy and the long installation time. Furthermore, they are extremely heavy, hence, making their use challenging. On the other hand, electromagnetic retarders are preferred by many customers given that they offer much braking for automobiles.

Hydrodynamic Retarders

This category of retarders also qualifies as driveline auxiliary braking system. However, they provide retardation through shearing of oil fluid. Kinetic energy is produced in this process of shearing. This energy is converted into heat energy, which is transmitted to the engine cooling system. The drawback of this type of retarders is the loss incurred due to redundancy. This owes to the fact that, the oil in the unit produces a drag which wastes fuel, hence, increasing the cost of automobile maintenance. However, the hydrodynamic retarders are appropriate for the long-distance trucks and transit buses given that the vehicles are used all the time.

The D-Braking Modern System

This state-of-the-art technological model will advance the efficiency and effectiveness of the braking systems due to the sophistication of the model. For instance, it will result in the reduction of cost of automobile maintenance given the easy installation procedures and low fuel energy consumption. Furthermore, the braking system will be effective both at high and low speeds. The system also eliminates the need for electromagnetic field. In addition, there is protection against skidding guaranteed by the effective braking cruise control. The future braking system also eliminates the heavy weight associated with the previous braking systems. There is no loss of fuel through drags manifest in the previous braking systems. This makes the system quite efficient and cost effective to use in automobiles. Eichhorn and Owen (2007) posit that the D-braking system incorporates anti-locking braking, which accurately co-ordinates wheels. This co-ordination is due to the sensor attached to each wheel to regulate brake pressure. This enables the wheels to match in the speed range.

Features of the Modern Brake System

  • The pressure of the system bases on the heat generation capability of the system.
  • Specific procedures are followed in the application of the braking system. This sets it apart from other braking systems which were invented in the past.
  • There is a complex Eigensolver which is used for squeal analysis. This device eliminates the need for programming and other complicated procedures.
  • The structured thermal regulation for the system’s heating and has the correct inclusion of system damping, which helps in the squeal computations.
  • It enables stopping of the vehicle on ice given that it avoids lock-ups and skidding of the automobile. This helps in saving of endangered lives of people caught in emergency situations.
    • There is lower insurance cost incurred by the users of this braking system. This is because there is a low probability of accidents and there is discount offer for all the clients who have installed the systems in their vehicles.
    • The system increases the value of the automobile hence making the item easily resalable in the automobile market. In fact, the system is almost a requirement on every vehicle because of the efficiency associated with the updated braking system.
    • It has traction control whereby technology monitors the wheels traction on the road. This is done through the use of sensors attached on the wheels of the vehicle. This traction mechanism sets this modern braking system from the rest of the braking systems.
  • It has SIMULIA, which gives the user simulations in the use of the braking system. These simulations include Abaqus, simulation automation and optimization capabilities. This simulation helps in solving all engineering queries. For instance, Abaqus helps in the brake design.            The braking pad is environment friendly, because it comprises a dark grey friction material. In addition, the braking pads reduce noise, hence, there is no sound pollution. Moreover, they reduce the rumbling effect during the running of the brakes. There is regulation of temperatures, hence, no overheating is experienced. In this regard fire outbreaks are contained. These efficiencies culminate in improved performance and reduction of braking system stresses. What is more, there is little probability of sparks during the running of the system.        ReferencesOwen, C. E., & Eichhorn, L. (2007). Classroom manual for automotive brake systems. Clifton            

 

  •             Park, NY: Thomson-Delmar Learning.
  • Mavrigian, M., & Carley, L. W. (2008), Brake systems: OEM & racing brake technology. New York: HPBooks.
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A farmer collects soil samples from the field because she is curious about the possible microbes Answer

A farmer collects soil samples from the field because she is curious about the possible microbes that might live there. Using a microscope she noticed two different kinds of cells: One is small with no separate internal structures; the other is much larger and contains several different internal structures. What are the names of the two types of cells? Describe two structures that are found in both types of cells and two structures that are only found in the larger type of cells.
2. Syndrome X is an inherited disease that only develops in individuals who are homozygous recessive for gene X. An individual with Syndrome X has parents that do not have this disease. What is the parents’ genotype for gene X? What is the probability that they may have another child with Syndrome X? Explain your answers.
3. What type of ecosystems can be found in the area where you live? Describe a food web in one of these ecosystems and one example of how human activities have affected this ecosystem.
4. Explain why it is a good choice environmentally to eat a vegetarian diet using what you have learned about energy transfer in food chains and the second law of thermodynamics. Include the following terms in your answer: herbivore, omnivore, trophic level, energy. Hint: think about the resources and energy used to produce different types of food.

 

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Jackson Corporation’s bonds have 12 years remaining to maturity. Interest is paid annually, the bonds have a $1,000 par value Answer

Jackson Corporation’s bonds have 12 years remaining to maturity. Interest is paid annually, the bonds have a $1,000 par value, and the coupon interest rate is 8%. The bonds have a yield to maturity of 9%. What is the current market price of these bonds?

Ans:

Years to Maturity 12
Annual Payment $80
Par value $1,000
Going rate, rd 9%
   
Value of bond = $928.39

Current market price of these bonds = $ 928.39

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Please define and explain three different ways that a firm can utilize operations management as a competitive advantage Answer

Please define and explain three different ways that a firm can utilize operations management as a competitive advantage. Also, please describe how well your present organization — or a favorite one– practices this concept and please provide examples.

 

Ans:

Organizations can utilize operations management as a competitive advantage by doing the following:

  • Making things right – the quality advantage.
  • Making things fast – the speed advantage.
  • Making things on time – the dependability advantage.
  • Changing what is made – the flexibility advantage.
  • Making things cheap – the cost advantage.

Operations management can offer as an implementer, supporter and driver of the overall business strategy; to translate competitive market requirements into performance objectives (Slack et aL, 2001). A resource is a basic element that a firm controls in order to best organize its processes. A person, machine, raw material, knowledge, brand image, and a patent can all be viewed as examples. A resource, or set of resources, can be used to create competitive advantage.

Competencies refer to the fundamental knowledge owned by the firm (knowledge, know-how, experience, innovation, and unique information). To be distinctive they are not confined to functional domains but cut across the firm and its organizational boundaries. Competitive advantage can come from a focus upon key competencies. Capabilities reflect an organization’s ability to use its competencies. Capabilities refer to the dynamic routines acquired by the firm; the managerial capacity to improve continuously the effectiveness of the organization. The essence of the resource-based view is its focus on the individual resources, competencies and capabilities of the organization; rather than a market-based strategy that may have commonalities with others in the industry. Sustainable advantage comes from exploitation of the unique resources of the individual organization.

Organizations are bundles and clusters of resources and managers must develop these in individual ways. These can be managed and combined to create the difference that supports a strategic positioning. However, they cannot be easily re-shuffled to take account of market opportunities; organizations must define opportunities in terms of existing internal capabilities and focus on unique expertise; outsourcing anything that is not central to this. Sustainable competitive advantage can be built over time based upon unique combinations of resources and competencies. The activities and processes utilizing these components are hard to replicate by competitors. Products and technologies offer only a short-term strategic advantage, as they have a relatively limited life span and are easy to copy or improve upon.

The Aztec Retail Group is a UK-based clothing retailer, known internationally for its ‘social-occasion’ clothing. With seventeen divisions and twenty-six labels it reaches into four segments of the clothing market: ladies’ wear, menswear, children’s wear and textiles. Aztec has also expanded globally and almost half of its business is done outside the UK. In the early 1990s, Aztec went through many lean years until in 1995–96 it decided to restructure and deploy an operations strategy with its main suppliers. In order to first refocus it employed a ‘50–30–10’ strategy. The plan was to reduce the design to sales cycle by 50 per cent, the inventory by 30 per cent and costs by 10 per cent in the hope of growing profit margins. Execution of the ‘50–30–10’ strategy was largely accomplished by cutting back the size of the clothing lines offered as a method to prepare for future, sound diversification. This initial focus also enabled a clearer understanding to be gained of the basic operational systems needed. Aztec blended various operational management core competencies, technologies, resources and activities into what they called high level packages. For example, shared pipeline information systems, data interchange support, joint planning approaches, replenishment and re-estimation and reorder systems, and inventory management components, all of which contained a number of operational subsystems. These were then deployed by supply situation using different emphases dependent upon the unique product and/or customer behaviour needs.

 

References:

Slack, N., Chambers, S. and Johnston, R. (2001), Operations Management, Financial Times and Prentice-Hall, Harlow.