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An open label study (where participants are aware of the treatment they are taking) is conducted to assess the time to pain relief Answer

  1. An open label study (where participants are aware of the treatment they are taking) is conducted to assess the time to pain relief following treatment in patients with arthritis. The following linear regression equations are estimated relating time to pain relief measured in minutes (dependent variable) to participant’s age (in years), gender (coded 1 for males and 0 for females) and severity of disease (a score ranging from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicative of more severe arthritis):

Time to Pain Relief = -24.2 + 0.9 Age

Time to Pain Relief = 11.8 + 19.3 Male Gender

Time to Pain Relief = 3.2 + 0.4 Severity

Time to Pain Relief = -19.8 + 0.50 Age + 10.9 Male Gender + 0.2 Severity


  1. What is the expected time to pain relief for a male following treatment?Time to Pain Relief = 11.8 + 19.3 * 1 = 31.1 minutes
  2. What is the expected time to pain relief for a participant aged 50 following treatment?Time to Pain Relief = -24.2 + 0.9 * 50 = 20.8 minutes
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of the computer-assisted audit technique known as parallel simulation Answer

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the computer-assisted audit technique known as parallel simulation?

The advantages of using parallel simulation is the tests can be run independently. The sample size is not costly to expand and real data is used so it allows verification to source documents.

The disadvantage could be the client’s software out preforms the auditor’s software or the auditors needs to be trained to understand the clients programs.

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The Logic in the Motor Vehicle Brake System Answer

The Logic in the Motor Vehicle Brake System Answer


The Brake System


Institution of economics

The Brake System

The Logic in the Motor Vehicle Brake System

The brake system is very essential in the cooling of the motor vehicle systems. The system works in the way that the pump moves the cooling device from the brake of the vehicle to the motor vehicle engine cooling system. This provides a thermal mass in order to dissolve brake energy. The breaks are kept cold through the taking off of the load from the service breaks. Furthermore, this results in reduction in maintenance of the vehicle and decrease, in the pedal effort. This also leads to increase in lifespan of the brakes of the vehicle. Cooler brakes also guarantee the safety of the vehicle. Owen and Eichhorn (2007) assert that, the cooling of the breaks decreases the stopping distance of the motor vehicle, hence, improving efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle. The system has a hand-controlled unit, which contains five power settings. These settings enable the adjustment of the strength of the break with regard to an individual’s need. These settings include revolutionary braking cruise control, which enables the setting of maximum speed when navigating through slopes. It leads to maintaining of a constant speed according to the grade variance.

History of the Brake System

The first brake lever was invented at the times of Roman Empire. This lever exerted pressure upon a wooden block against a cart wheel in a bid to slow the speed of a cart through the use of friction. This brake technology prevailed for some time. Furthermore, the early nomadic people used this technological principle of pressing the block against the wheel of the cart. However, there is the incorporation of the disk brakes and other back-up systems into the working of the block-wheel brake system. Cast iron brake shoes have replaced the wooden blocks which were employed by the early folks. Notwithstanding, there were frequent runaways, which called for the introduction of more efficient braking system.

The 20th Century

This century brought a paradigm shift in the motor vehicle industry. This owes to the fact that, there was the advancement of the braking system in this century. The development of the trucking and the automotive industry culminate in the updating of the braking system. For instance, the old vehicles employed band brakes. This was followed by the introduction of the drum brakes, which were mechanically applied through a linkage. This was followed by a major advancement in the braking technology during the introduction of the hydraulic systems in 1920-1940 (Mavrigian and Carley, 2008). The system introduced consistent force distribution. This has resulted in a decrease in stoppage distance by a great magnitude. This efficiency results from the improvement in the fade resistance. The only common feature of the hydraulic system and the drum brake are that the latter’s design flaw happens to be the thermal mass. This implies that, the application of brakes increases the temperature. This aspect is manifest in the race cars, which exhibited red-hot brakes during racing. The stresses increase when the brake of the motor vehicle gets hot. This also results in a decrease, in the car performance. This is an enormous challenge in the motor industry. This owes to the fact that, it is difficult to design sufficient braking, which can guarantee absorption of all the thermal energy required by the system. The disc brakes were prevalent during the 1960’s. They were applied in cars and trucks.


The failure of the friction brakes to absorb energy for long durations led to the invention of the retarders, which provide a retarding force to the braking system. These devices help in the application of brakes especially in sloppy areas. Moreover, they provide safety and a prolonged economic life of the brakes. The safety this device provides is due to the ability of energy absorption. On the other hand, the lifespan of the brakes is prolonged due to the reduction on the operating temperature and reduction in the long downgrades usage. The most common retarders used in the modern world include the engine brakes, electromagnetic, hydrodynamic and exhaust brake retarders.

Engine Brakes

These kinds of retarders are appropriate for large tractors and trailers. The retarders absorb energy through the conversion of the diesel engine into an air compressor device. However, this retarder’s shortcoming is that its working produces much noise, hence, rendering it ineffective in some parts of the world.

Exhaust Brakes

These retarders are applicable in diesel engines, which have standard transmissions. They are ineffective in automatic gas engines of automobiles. They are strategically positioned after the exhaust manifold in order to exert pressure on the engine exhaust. This is possible through closure of the gate valve of the hydraulic system. The retarders are efficient at high speeds. In addition, they are the best to apply in downhill braking, because they perform best with appropriate powertrain.

Electromagnetic Retarders

This category of retarders provides the retarding force through the shearing of magnetic flux lines. They are a driveline braking system, whereby the automobile’s engine is exclusive. They are applied in the heavy duty applications with regard to similar retarders. However, they can be separately applied without any back-up in buses for transit and school buses. According to Mavrigian and Carley (2008), these retarders draw heavily on the electrical energy and the long installation time. Furthermore, they are extremely heavy, hence, making their use challenging. On the other hand, electromagnetic retarders are preferred by many customers given that they offer much braking for automobiles.

Hydrodynamic Retarders

This category of retarders also qualifies as driveline auxiliary braking system. However, they provide retardation through shearing of oil fluid. Kinetic energy is produced in this process of shearing. This energy is converted into heat energy, which is transmitted to the engine cooling system. The drawback of this type of retarders is the loss incurred due to redundancy. This owes to the fact that, the oil in the unit produces a drag which wastes fuel, hence, increasing the cost of automobile maintenance. However, the hydrodynamic retarders are appropriate for the long-distance trucks and transit buses given that the vehicles are used all the time.

The D-Braking Modern System

This state-of-the-art technological model will advance the efficiency and effectiveness of the braking systems due to the sophistication of the model. For instance, it will result in the reduction of cost of automobile maintenance given the easy installation procedures and low fuel energy consumption. Furthermore, the braking system will be effective both at high and low speeds. The system also eliminates the need for electromagnetic field. In addition, there is protection against skidding guaranteed by the effective braking cruise control. The future braking system also eliminates the heavy weight associated with the previous braking systems. There is no loss of fuel through drags manifest in the previous braking systems. This makes the system quite efficient and cost effective to use in automobiles. Eichhorn and Owen (2007) posit that the D-braking system incorporates anti-locking braking, which accurately co-ordinates wheels. This co-ordination is due to the sensor attached to each wheel to regulate brake pressure. This enables the wheels to match in the speed range.

Features of the Modern Brake System

  • The pressure of the system bases on the heat generation capability of the system.
  • Specific procedures are followed in the application of the braking system. This sets it apart from other braking systems which were invented in the past.
  • There is a complex Eigensolver which is used for squeal analysis. This device eliminates the need for programming and other complicated procedures.
  • The structured thermal regulation for the system’s heating and has the correct inclusion of system damping, which helps in the squeal computations.
  • It enables stopping of the vehicle on ice given that it avoids lock-ups and skidding of the automobile. This helps in saving of endangered lives of people caught in emergency situations.
    • There is lower insurance cost incurred by the users of this braking system. This is because there is a low probability of accidents and there is discount offer for all the clients who have installed the systems in their vehicles.
    • The system increases the value of the automobile hence making the item easily resalable in the automobile market. In fact, the system is almost a requirement on every vehicle because of the efficiency associated with the updated braking system.
    • It has traction control whereby technology monitors the wheels traction on the road. This is done through the use of sensors attached on the wheels of the vehicle. This traction mechanism sets this modern braking system from the rest of the braking systems.
  • It has SIMULIA, which gives the user simulations in the use of the braking system. These simulations include Abaqus, simulation automation and optimization capabilities. This simulation helps in solving all engineering queries. For instance, Abaqus helps in the brake design.            The braking pad is environment friendly, because it comprises a dark grey friction material. In addition, the braking pads reduce noise, hence, there is no sound pollution. Moreover, they reduce the rumbling effect during the running of the brakes. There is regulation of temperatures, hence, no overheating is experienced. In this regard fire outbreaks are contained. These efficiencies culminate in improved performance and reduction of braking system stresses. What is more, there is little probability of sparks during the running of the system.        ReferencesOwen, C. E., & Eichhorn, L. (2007). Classroom manual for automotive brake systems. Clifton            


  •             Park, NY: Thomson-Delmar Learning.
  • Mavrigian, M., & Carley, L. W. (2008), Brake systems: OEM & racing brake technology. New York: HPBooks.
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A farmer collects soil samples from the field because she is curious about the possible microbes Answer

A farmer collects soil samples from the field because she is curious about the possible microbes that might live there. Using a microscope she noticed two different kinds of cells: One is small with no separate internal structures; the other is much larger and contains several different internal structures. What are the names of the two types of cells? Describe two structures that are found in both types of cells and two structures that are only found in the larger type of cells.
2. Syndrome X is an inherited disease that only develops in individuals who are homozygous recessive for gene X. An individual with Syndrome X has parents that do not have this disease. What is the parents’ genotype for gene X? What is the probability that they may have another child with Syndrome X? Explain your answers.
3. What type of ecosystems can be found in the area where you live? Describe a food web in one of these ecosystems and one example of how human activities have affected this ecosystem.
4. Explain why it is a good choice environmentally to eat a vegetarian diet using what you have learned about energy transfer in food chains and the second law of thermodynamics. Include the following terms in your answer: herbivore, omnivore, trophic level, energy. Hint: think about the resources and energy used to produce different types of food.


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Jackson Corporation’s bonds have 12 years remaining to maturity. Interest is paid annually, the bonds have a $1,000 par value Answer

Jackson Corporation’s bonds have 12 years remaining to maturity. Interest is paid annually, the bonds have a $1,000 par value, and the coupon interest rate is 8%. The bonds have a yield to maturity of 9%. What is the current market price of these bonds?


Years to Maturity 12
Annual Payment $80
Par value $1,000
Going rate, rd 9%
Value of bond = $928.39

Current market price of these bonds = $ 928.39

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Please define and explain three different ways that a firm can utilize operations management as a competitive advantage Answer

Please define and explain three different ways that a firm can utilize operations management as a competitive advantage. Also, please describe how well your present organization — or a favorite one– practices this concept and please provide examples.



Organizations can utilize operations management as a competitive advantage by doing the following:

  • Making things right – the quality advantage.
  • Making things fast – the speed advantage.
  • Making things on time – the dependability advantage.
  • Changing what is made – the flexibility advantage.
  • Making things cheap – the cost advantage.

Operations management can offer as an implementer, supporter and driver of the overall business strategy; to translate competitive market requirements into performance objectives (Slack et aL, 2001). A resource is a basic element that a firm controls in order to best organize its processes. A person, machine, raw material, knowledge, brand image, and a patent can all be viewed as examples. A resource, or set of resources, can be used to create competitive advantage.

Competencies refer to the fundamental knowledge owned by the firm (knowledge, know-how, experience, innovation, and unique information). To be distinctive they are not confined to functional domains but cut across the firm and its organizational boundaries. Competitive advantage can come from a focus upon key competencies. Capabilities reflect an organization’s ability to use its competencies. Capabilities refer to the dynamic routines acquired by the firm; the managerial capacity to improve continuously the effectiveness of the organization. The essence of the resource-based view is its focus on the individual resources, competencies and capabilities of the organization; rather than a market-based strategy that may have commonalities with others in the industry. Sustainable advantage comes from exploitation of the unique resources of the individual organization.

Organizations are bundles and clusters of resources and managers must develop these in individual ways. These can be managed and combined to create the difference that supports a strategic positioning. However, they cannot be easily re-shuffled to take account of market opportunities; organizations must define opportunities in terms of existing internal capabilities and focus on unique expertise; outsourcing anything that is not central to this. Sustainable competitive advantage can be built over time based upon unique combinations of resources and competencies. The activities and processes utilizing these components are hard to replicate by competitors. Products and technologies offer only a short-term strategic advantage, as they have a relatively limited life span and are easy to copy or improve upon.

The Aztec Retail Group is a UK-based clothing retailer, known internationally for its ‘social-occasion’ clothing. With seventeen divisions and twenty-six labels it reaches into four segments of the clothing market: ladies’ wear, menswear, children’s wear and textiles. Aztec has also expanded globally and almost half of its business is done outside the UK. In the early 1990s, Aztec went through many lean years until in 1995–96 it decided to restructure and deploy an operations strategy with its main suppliers. In order to first refocus it employed a ‘50–30–10’ strategy. The plan was to reduce the design to sales cycle by 50 per cent, the inventory by 30 per cent and costs by 10 per cent in the hope of growing profit margins. Execution of the ‘50–30–10’ strategy was largely accomplished by cutting back the size of the clothing lines offered as a method to prepare for future, sound diversification. This initial focus also enabled a clearer understanding to be gained of the basic operational systems needed. Aztec blended various operational management core competencies, technologies, resources and activities into what they called high level packages. For example, shared pipeline information systems, data interchange support, joint planning approaches, replenishment and re-estimation and reorder systems, and inventory management components, all of which contained a number of operational subsystems. These were then deployed by supply situation using different emphases dependent upon the unique product and/or customer behaviour needs.



Slack, N., Chambers, S. and Johnston, R. (2001), Operations Management, Financial Times and Prentice-Hall, Harlow.


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Nick’s Enchiladas Incorporated has preferred stock outstanding that pays a dividend of $5 at the end of each year Answer

Nick’s Enchiladas Incorporated has preferred stock outstanding that pays a dividend of $5 at the end of each year. The preferred sells for $50 a share. What is the stock’s required rate of return?



Dps $5.00
rps 10%
Vps $50.00


Stock’s required rate of return = Dps (the preferred dividend) / Vps (value of the preferred stock)

 Stock’s required rate of return = 5 /50 = 0.10 = 10 %

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Would you expect that a company’s WACC would increase as the firm took on more debt in its capital structure Answer

Yes a companies WACC would increase with increased debt. See examples below:


T = 40%

wd = 30% rd = 6.0%

wps = 5% rps = 5.8%

ws = 65% rs = 12.0%

WACC = Weighted average cost of capital

= wd rd(1 – T) + wps rps + ws rs

WACC = 9.17%

increased debt

T = 40%

wd = 40% rd = 6.0%

wps = 5% rps = 5.8%

ws = 65% rs = 12.0%


WACC = Weighted average cost of capital

= wd rd(1 – T) + wps rps + ws rs

WACC = 9.53%

decreased debt

T = 40%

wd = 20% rd = 6.0%

wps = 5% rps = 5.8%

ws = 65% rs = 12.0%


WACC = Weighted average cost of capital

= wd rd(1 – T) + wps rps + ws rs


WACC = 8.81%


Weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is the average rate of return a company expects to compensate all its different investors. The weights are the fraction of each financing source in the company’s target capital structure Here is the basic formula for weighted average cost of capital:

WACC = ((E/V) * Re) + [((D/V) * Rd)*(1-T)]


E = Market value of the company’s equity

D = Market value of the company’s debt

V = Total Market Value of the company (E + D)

Re = Cost of Equity

Rd = Cost of Debt

T= Tax Rate


It’s important for a company to know its weighted average cost of capital as a way to gauge the expense of funding future projects. The lower a company’s WACC, the cheaper it is for a company to fund new projects.

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Monterey’s Restaurant is currently the only restaurant in town that sells Mexican food. Monterey’s advisors estimate that the demand Answer

Monterey’s Restaurant is currently the only restaurant in town that sells Mexican food. Monterey’s advisors estimate that the demand for Mexican food in the area is given by:

Q = 10 -0.5P

Where P is the average price of a meal and Q is the quantity of meals. The restaurant’ s costs are estimated with the following equation:

TC = 150 + 5Q + 0.5Q2

  1. Given this information, how much output should Monterey’s produce to maximize profits?

f.How much should it charge for each meal? Is Monterey’s restaurant making a profit? If yes, how much?

g.Without doing any calculations, if you were Monterey’s advisors, what would you recommend they do to improve their profits ?

h.Suppose that price discrimination was an option available to Monterey’s? What would Monterey’s need to do to be able to practice second or third degree price discrimination?


Show all your work. Your explanation determines your grade.

Question 36

When producing 10 units, Jean has total variable costs of $400, total fixed costs of $550, and assets of $3000. Assume you can approximate MC with AVC.

  1. If she wants a return of 10%, what price should she charge?
  2. Suppose that instead of determining price based on his target return, Jean decides to use a standard markup pricing scheme. What is the optimal markup for Jean if she estimates that the price elasticity of demand for her product is -2?
  3. If she uses the optimal markup obtained in part b, how much should he charge for her product?
  4. Given your answers to parts a and c, which pricing mechanism should he chose? How would your answer change if the price elasticity for her product decreases considerably due to an decrease in the availability of substitutes.

Show all your work. Your explanation determines your grade

Question 37

The Allen Corporation, a sofa retailer, wants to determine how many sofas it must sell in order to earn a profit of $10,000 per month. The price of each sofa is $400, the average variable cost is $200. What is the required sales volume if fixed costs are $4000 per month?


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