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What are the advantages and disadvantages of the computer-assisted audit technique known as parallel simulation Answer

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the computer-assisted audit technique known as parallel simulation?

The advantages of using parallel simulation is the tests can be run independently. The sample size is not costly to expand and real data is used so it allows verification to source documents.

The disadvantage could be the client’s software out preforms the auditor’s software or the auditors needs to be trained to understand the clients programs.

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The Logic in the Motor Vehicle Brake System Answer

The Logic in the Motor Vehicle Brake System Answer


The Brake System


Institution of economics

The Brake System

The Logic in the Motor Vehicle Brake System

The brake system is very essential in the cooling of the motor vehicle systems. The system works in the way that the pump moves the cooling device from the brake of the vehicle to the motor vehicle engine cooling system. This provides a thermal mass in order to dissolve brake energy. The breaks are kept cold through the taking off of the load from the service breaks. Furthermore, this results in reduction in maintenance of the vehicle and decrease, in the pedal effort. This also leads to increase in lifespan of the brakes of the vehicle. Cooler brakes also guarantee the safety of the vehicle. Owen and Eichhorn (2007) assert that, the cooling of the breaks decreases the stopping distance of the motor vehicle, hence, improving efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle. The system has a hand-controlled unit, which contains five power settings. These settings enable the adjustment of the strength of the break with regard to an individual’s need. These settings include revolutionary braking cruise control, which enables the setting of maximum speed when navigating through slopes. It leads to maintaining of a constant speed according to the grade variance.

History of the Brake System

The first brake lever was invented at the times of Roman Empire. This lever exerted pressure upon a wooden block against a cart wheel in a bid to slow the speed of a cart through the use of friction. This brake technology prevailed for some time. Furthermore, the early nomadic people used this technological principle of pressing the block against the wheel of the cart. However, there is the incorporation of the disk brakes and other back-up systems into the working of the block-wheel brake system. Cast iron brake shoes have replaced the wooden blocks which were employed by the early folks. Notwithstanding, there were frequent runaways, which called for the introduction of more efficient braking system.

The 20th Century

This century brought a paradigm shift in the motor vehicle industry. This owes to the fact that, there was the advancement of the braking system in this century. The development of the trucking and the automotive industry culminate in the updating of the braking system. For instance, the old vehicles employed band brakes. This was followed by the introduction of the drum brakes, which were mechanically applied through a linkage. This was followed by a major advancement in the braking technology during the introduction of the hydraulic systems in 1920-1940 (Mavrigian and Carley, 2008). The system introduced consistent force distribution. This has resulted in a decrease in stoppage distance by a great magnitude. This efficiency results from the improvement in the fade resistance. The only common feature of the hydraulic system and the drum brake are that the latter’s design flaw happens to be the thermal mass. This implies that, the application of brakes increases the temperature. This aspect is manifest in the race cars, which exhibited red-hot brakes during racing. The stresses increase when the brake of the motor vehicle gets hot. This also results in a decrease, in the car performance. This is an enormous challenge in the motor industry. This owes to the fact that, it is difficult to design sufficient braking, which can guarantee absorption of all the thermal energy required by the system. The disc brakes were prevalent during the 1960’s. They were applied in cars and trucks.


The failure of the friction brakes to absorb energy for long durations led to the invention of the retarders, which provide a retarding force to the braking system. These devices help in the application of brakes especially in sloppy areas. Moreover, they provide safety and a prolonged economic life of the brakes. The safety this device provides is due to the ability of energy absorption. On the other hand, the lifespan of the brakes is prolonged due to the reduction on the operating temperature and reduction in the long downgrades usage. The most common retarders used in the modern world include the engine brakes, electromagnetic, hydrodynamic and exhaust brake retarders.

Engine Brakes

These kinds of retarders are appropriate for large tractors and trailers. The retarders absorb energy through the conversion of the diesel engine into an air compressor device. However, this retarder’s shortcoming is that its working produces much noise, hence, rendering it ineffective in some parts of the world.

Exhaust Brakes

These retarders are applicable in diesel engines, which have standard transmissions. They are ineffective in automatic gas engines of automobiles. They are strategically positioned after the exhaust manifold in order to exert pressure on the engine exhaust. This is possible through closure of the gate valve of the hydraulic system. The retarders are efficient at high speeds. In addition, they are the best to apply in downhill braking, because they perform best with appropriate powertrain.

Electromagnetic Retarders

This category of retarders provides the retarding force through the shearing of magnetic flux lines. They are a driveline braking system, whereby the automobile’s engine is exclusive. They are applied in the heavy duty applications with regard to similar retarders. However, they can be separately applied without any back-up in buses for transit and school buses. According to Mavrigian and Carley (2008), these retarders draw heavily on the electrical energy and the long installation time. Furthermore, they are extremely heavy, hence, making their use challenging. On the other hand, electromagnetic retarders are preferred by many customers given that they offer much braking for automobiles.

Hydrodynamic Retarders

This category of retarders also qualifies as driveline auxiliary braking system. However, they provide retardation through shearing of oil fluid. Kinetic energy is produced in this process of shearing. This energy is converted into heat energy, which is transmitted to the engine cooling system. The drawback of this type of retarders is the loss incurred due to redundancy. This owes to the fact that, the oil in the unit produces a drag which wastes fuel, hence, increasing the cost of automobile maintenance. However, the hydrodynamic retarders are appropriate for the long-distance trucks and transit buses given that the vehicles are used all the time.

The D-Braking Modern System

This state-of-the-art technological model will advance the efficiency and effectiveness of the braking systems due to the sophistication of the model. For instance, it will result in the reduction of cost of automobile maintenance given the easy installation procedures and low fuel energy consumption. Furthermore, the braking system will be effective both at high and low speeds. The system also eliminates the need for electromagnetic field. In addition, there is protection against skidding guaranteed by the effective braking cruise control. The future braking system also eliminates the heavy weight associated with the previous braking systems. There is no loss of fuel through drags manifest in the previous braking systems. This makes the system quite efficient and cost effective to use in automobiles. Eichhorn and Owen (2007) posit that the D-braking system incorporates anti-locking braking, which accurately co-ordinates wheels. This co-ordination is due to the sensor attached to each wheel to regulate brake pressure. This enables the wheels to match in the speed range.

Features of the Modern Brake System

  • The pressure of the system bases on the heat generation capability of the system.
  • Specific procedures are followed in the application of the braking system. This sets it apart from other braking systems which were invented in the past.
  • There is a complex Eigensolver which is used for squeal analysis. This device eliminates the need for programming and other complicated procedures.
  • The structured thermal regulation for the system’s heating and has the correct inclusion of system damping, which helps in the squeal computations.
  • It enables stopping of the vehicle on ice given that it avoids lock-ups and skidding of the automobile. This helps in saving of endangered lives of people caught in emergency situations.
    • There is lower insurance cost incurred by the users of this braking system. This is because there is a low probability of accidents and there is discount offer for all the clients who have installed the systems in their vehicles.
    • The system increases the value of the automobile hence making the item easily resalable in the automobile market. In fact, the system is almost a requirement on every vehicle because of the efficiency associated with the updated braking system.
    • It has traction control whereby technology monitors the wheels traction on the road. This is done through the use of sensors attached on the wheels of the vehicle. This traction mechanism sets this modern braking system from the rest of the braking systems.
  • It has SIMULIA, which gives the user simulations in the use of the braking system. These simulations include Abaqus, simulation automation and optimization capabilities. This simulation helps in solving all engineering queries. For instance, Abaqus helps in the brake design.            The braking pad is environment friendly, because it comprises a dark grey friction material. In addition, the braking pads reduce noise, hence, there is no sound pollution. Moreover, they reduce the rumbling effect during the running of the brakes. There is regulation of temperatures, hence, no overheating is experienced. In this regard fire outbreaks are contained. These efficiencies culminate in improved performance and reduction of braking system stresses. What is more, there is little probability of sparks during the running of the system.        ReferencesOwen, C. E., & Eichhorn, L. (2007). Classroom manual for automotive brake systems. Clifton            


  •             Park, NY: Thomson-Delmar Learning.
  • Mavrigian, M., & Carley, L. W. (2008), Brake systems: OEM & racing brake technology. New York: HPBooks.