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Discuss the interrelationships between healthcare costs, quality, and access from the Roemer model of health services systems Answer

Discuss the interrelationships between healthcare costs, quality, and access from the Roemer model of health services systems. Make suggestions on how one would maximize access and quality while keeping costs low. Now, analyze why these suggestions have not been put into place.

In order to maximize access and quality while keeping costs low, One would have to make sure everyone one has healthcare insurance, which will allow more access to healthcare upon creating more options for disabled to get to their healthcare appts. Quality would be monitoring chronic diseases and managing them so there is less hospital stays and keeping cost low would be making sure all patients keep up on preventative visits in order to keep people healthy and safe. In order to maximize access and still provide good quality services the health care system need to be designed which will allow everyone in the United States to have health coverage. In reality, this would be impossible. The reason why I say this because health service is a business which is system designed to bring in revenue for treating the sick. All employees that work in the United States pays a certain percentage toward their health care. In other words, there is a certain percentage of their income taken out from health care. People who are unemployed cannot afford to purchase health insurance every month. For example, I was laid for 2 years and 4 months, I found it very difficult to pay for health coverage. The cheapest was $330 per month. My unemployment check was $330. I did not have any money left over to buy food or pay a bill. Eventually, my unemployment ran out and I was forced to get public assistance. So, therefore, I could no longer pay for health coverage so I had to sign up for Medicaid. I had to wait two month to get medical coverage. I am a diabetic so I could not get the supplies for two months. The money I received from Pubic Assistant was just $80 a month plus food stamps for $199. I was able to buy food and pay one bill but I had to medical coverage due to the waiting period.

In this post you mention that you would lower the monthly premiums so that they would be more affordable.   What strategies would you use to accomplish this?   Who would pay for the reduction in premiums that would be experienced by Americans?

Typically, healthcare organizations, physicians/clinicians, and insurance payers charge a high dollar amount for exams and procedures due to non-payment from self pay patients, inaccurate demographic information, high cost to collect amounts and lack of reimbursement volumes. Of course there are many other factors involved, but these are a few big reasons that healthcare organizations will speak to. The access to quality health care is limited by types of insurance coverage, geographic location, and physicians themselves, as some of them only take certain payer types from primary care or specialist visits. For exams or procedures, the patients’ insurance or lack of coverage plays a critical role as terms of payment or reimbursement from the payers is not guaranteed or extremely limited due to increasing cost monitoring. Hospitals and physician clinics are strongly discouraged to schedule elective procedures that put that organization at risk for non-payment from payers. For self pay patients, strong scripting from registration or financial assistance staff is provided to try and collect payments up front with heavy discounting in order to collect as much as possible. Emergent care situations call for stabilization and patient care based on a clinicians medical judgement, but all other services are debatable between the patient and the healthcare organization.

In order to reduce the cost to accomplish Lorraine’s idea, the payers and clinicians would have to lower their costs so that the patient is paying for the majority of the cost. The last time I checked the overwhelming number of physicians and payers are not hurting for profits, so analyzing their true costs and profit margins would be a good start, lowering the payers requirements for payment would provide higher revenue flow for the hospitals and in turn lower the costs for the patients.

If we consider the fact that specific populations have different characteristics and demographics which impact healthcare delivery.   These characteristics can be such things as income, race, age, location, etc.   How do the characteristics of a specific population impact the healthcare services they demand and the services these receive?

The population that comes to my mind right away is our Spanish speaking population. In reality it is any population with English as their second language. I pointed out the Spanish speaking population my organization utilizes our Language Services department primarily for Spanish interpreters. The barrier between languages can pose significant communication issues.

Without an interpreter, physicians and medical personnel are unable to obtain an accurate past medical history, current chief complaint, signs & symptoms, allergies, current medications, etc. Also, it’s difficult to explain the plan of care to a patient and their family members if their is a language barrier. It can be difficult to convey the small things to a patient or family member; it could be something as simple as explaining where the family lounge is located in order to grab a refreshment or use the free washer and dryer that is provided to them.

I think in general, a language barrier effects the care that a patient receives. It’s truly unfortunate, but it’s definitely a reality. I am definitely a people person and I love talking to my patients, unfortunately I am not bilingual and therefor cannot carry on a conversation with someone who only speaks Spanish or any other language for that matter. I still provide the same task-oriented care to those patients (hourly checks, medication administration, vitals, etc), however the overall experience they receive is not the same.

We have several Spanish interpreters employed through our organization. Typically, we have one staffed in the ER 24 hour per day, one that is utilized for clinic appointments and the other is utilized for inpatient consults. The Spanish interpreters are amazing and they help close the gap in communication. Sometimes it can take a great deal of coordination ensuring the doctors, nurses, patients, family members and other medical personnel are all available at the same time for daily rounds or important updates, but it’s definitely beneficial. We also have interpreter phones that we use in order to get results immediately and to find an interpreter for a not as common language.

Lowering monthly premiums is a great idea and of course the problem would be the implementation of this idea. A possible suggestion that is being utilized now in certain hospitals is a tier payment system. Employees that make the min to 30,000 pay a certain amount, then 31,000 to 50,000, and so on. There is a program at my hospital that covers your deductible expenses as well as your out of pocket expenses if you only make a certain amount of money and have a certain family size. For example, if you only make 30,000 a year and have a family size of 4, and are single, you would qualify for this benefit.

Another idea, is a form of socialized healthcare that the current administration is striving to change. We already pay a certain amount into Medicare and for programs such as Medicaid, so instead of the pot of taxes going towards these two separate groups, how about having a large pot that it goes into.

The way this would work:

  1. Cut Medicaid programs altogether – they are being taken advantage of severely and instead of a person trying to get a job with benefits, they work to stay on the program.
  2. Give every single American basic healthcare. You must be an American citizen (with a valid social security number!!!).
  3. All preventative care would be covered 100%. (All well child checks, vaccinations, and yearly adult physicals as well as all dental preventative cleanings and a yearly eye exam).
  4. You would get 3 sick doctor’s visits a year. These include all general illnesses such as the flu, colds, ear infections, generalized pain, headaches, etc.
  5. You get 2 specialized visits a year. These include: ENT, Ortho, Neuro, Psych (mental health), Rheumatologist, etc.
  6. All emergency care visits that deal with lacerations, asthma attacks, chest pain, shortness of breath, MVAs, limb loss, severe headache, severe loss of blood, etc. would be covered 100%. This includes hospital stays for recovery and necessary lifesaving surgical procedures. If you try to come into the ER and only have the flu or a cold, you will be charged. This will hopefully get people to think twice before they use the ER as a doctor’s office.
  7. All pregnancies and the birth itself is covered 100% until the second child. The well visits, medications, ultrasounds, testing, hospital stay, etc. Baby is covered as well. After the birth of your second child, you will be expected to pay 50% of the cost. After the birth of your fourth child, you will be expected to pay 100% of the cost.
  8. You get 2 minor procedures and 1 major procedure (unless it resulted from an emergency accident) covered 100%. Minor procedures: vasectomy, Lasik, dental surgery, gall bladder removal, hernias, etc. Major LAVH, tumor removal, exploratory lap, etc.
  9. If you wish to purchase more coverage, then you will have those options and we can use the capitalist system that we all love.

Of course, this is just an idea and it is not perfect. It will require a board at multiple levels – kind of like a judicial board (Supreme Court of Indiana and then the Supreme Court of USA).

The reason that hospitals have to charge so much for items when consumed outside of the hospital by first generation customers is two-fold;

1) Hospitals have to have individual per-patients packaging which is very expensive. This single-use packaging is very expensive but extremely necessary to avoid cross-contamination and for use in isolation rooms.

2) Price per units are an average of the cost of the item as it is consumed in the hospital. This means that the average includes what the item cost after the best insurance reimbursement to the direct payment and indigent patients. Is many seem like a lot of money but it is the average cost per unit.

Ok I lied there is a third. The cost of the manpower for receiving, stocking, direct care personal, sanitation, etc. also adds to the cost. The product touches many hands before it is in your nurses hand ready for use.

When people think of the segment of the United States population most dependent on the health care safety net, they may first imagine the urban poor in crowded emergency rooms at urban public hospitals. Although this group no doubt has serious health care problems, residents of rural areas may, in fact, have greater health care needs and face access barriers that are no less substantial. Rural populations are generally older, poorer, and have lower levels of education than their urban counterparts. There are far fewer hospitals and physicians in rural communities; the time it takes to travel to health care providers is often greater and public transportation less available. These problems may be magnified in rural areas far distant from any urban center.


As the federal government gives states greater responsibility for designing health policies, the fundamental differences between rural and urban areas as well as among different types of rural areas will need to be recognized. Although state policymakers need to understand the differences that exist between rural and urban areas within their borders in order to design effective policies, most national data sets containing the relevant heath care information (e.g., the National Health Interview Survey [NHIS] and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey [MEPS]) do not allow for this type of substate geographic analysis.


This information gap can be filled in part by the National Survey of America’s Families (NSAF), a survey of children and adults under the age of 65 in over 44,000 households that is being conducted as part of the Urban Institute’s Assessing the New Federalism (ANF) study.1 The NSAF provides representative information on the nonelderly population for 13 ANF focal states and for the nation as a whole.2 Among a broad range of demographic and economic data, the NSAF contains information on insurance coverage, health status, access to care, and use of health services. Of the ANF states, only eight have substantial rural populations; this brief presents state-level data for these states – Alabama, Colorado, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin.3

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Analysis of a company’s assets will help evaluate its: I. liquidity. II. solvency. III. ANSWER

Question 1 Marks: 2 Analysis of a company’s assets will help evaluate its: I. liquidity. II. solvency. III. operational capacity. IV financing ability. Choose one answer.

  1. I, II, III and IV
  2. I, II and IV
  3. II, III and IV
  4. I, II and III


Question 2 Marks: 2 For Control Furniture Co., LIFO Reserve in Year 2006 $91 million LIFO Reserve in Year 2005 $82 million Tax Rate is 35%. To restate Year 2006 LIFO inventories to a FIFO basis, we use the following analytical entry: A) Inventories 91 Deferred Tax Payable 31.85 Retained Earnings 59.15 B) Inventories 91 Deferred Tax Payable 35.65 Retained Earnings 55.35 C) Inventories 91 Deferred Tax Payable 38.96 Retained Earnings 52.04 D) Inventories 91 Deferred Tax Payable 32.85 Retained Earnings 58.15 Choose one answer.

  • Option A


  1.  b. Option B
  2. c. Option C
  3. d. Option D


Question 3 Marks: 2 The use of LIFO rather than FIFO for inventory costing under normal economic conditions results in: I. lower net income. II. higher total assets. III. higher retained earnings. IV. unchanged retained earnings. Choose one answer. a. II and III b. I, II and IV c. I only d. I and IV


Question 4 Marks: 2 The following information can be found in ABC Co.’s financial statements. 2006 2005 Finished Goods $251,690 $195,360 Work in Process and purchased parts 245,123 17,377 Raw Materials 136,568 106,789 633,381 488,581 Less excess of current cost over stated LIFO value 62,951 71,186 $570,430 $417,395 Retained earnings $3,526,000 $3,159,000 Assume a tax rate of 35%. Inventories valued using the LIFO method represented approximately 80% of consolidated inventories. What will be the value of inventory for 2006 if ABC used FIFO valuation? Choose one answer. a. 633,485 b. 570,430 c. 633,381 d. 488,581


Question 5 Marks: 2 What will be the retained earnings for 2006 if ABC used FIFO valuation? Choose one answer. a. 3,205,271 b. 3,566,918 c. 3,893,000 d. 4,096,430


Question 6 Marks: 2 What will be the retained earnings for 2005 if ABC used FIFO valuation? Choose one answer. a. 3,205,271 b. 3,566,918 c. 3,893,000 d. 4,096,430


Question 7 Marks: 2 Which of the following is not a common characteristic of a company choosing to use LIFO rather than FIFO? Choose one answer. a. Larger inventory balances b. Higher variability in inventory balances c. Greater expected tax savings d. Larger in size


Question 8 Marks: 2 Financial Statements of ABC Corp. indicates that ending inventory levels in 2005 and 2006 were $200,000 and $350,000 respectively. Cost of Goods sold for 2005 and 2006 were $1,900,000 and $2,200,000 respectively. Purchases in 2006 were: Choose one answer. a. $1,950,000 b. $2,150,000 c. $2,350,000 d. $1,850,000


Question 9 Marks: 2 The inventory costing method used by a company (LIFO, FIFO, etc.) will affect: Asset Turnover Debt/Equity Ratio A) Yes Yes B) Yes No C) No No D) No Yes Choose one answer. a. Option A b. Option B c. Option C d. Option D


Question 10 Marks: 2 Which of the following statements about inventories is true? Choose one answer. a. U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) require the use of lower-of-cost or market-valuation basis for inventories. b. Last-in, last-out (LIFO) inventory accounting makes management of income more difficult than first-in, first-out (FIFO) accounting. c. During inflation, LIFO inventory accounting tends to overstate the current ratio. d. FIFO inventory balances generally contain old and outdated costs that have little or no relationship to current costs.


Question 11 Marks: 2 With respect to LIFO, which of the following is incorrect? Choose one answer. a. If a company uses LIFO for tax purposes it must use it for GAAP purposes. b. If the LIFO reserve increases in a given year, the LIFO COGS is higher than it would have been if FIFO had been used for that year. c. LIFO results in better matching on the income statement than FIFO. d. LIFO results in inventory levels on the balance sheet that are closer to current cost than FIFO.

Question 12 Marks: 2 LIFO liquidation occurs when: Choose one answer. a. a firm changes from LIFO to another inventory method. b. a firm experiences an increase in cost of raw materials. c. the LIFO reserves decline in value. d. the quantity of goods sold is greater than the quantity produced.


Question 13 Marks: 2 A firm has a current ratio greater than 1.0. If the firm’s ending inventory is understated by $3,000 and beginning inventory is overstated by $5,000, the firm’s net income (before taxes) and current ratio will be: Net Income Current Ratio A) understated by $2,000 too low B) overstated by $2,000 too low C) understated by $8,000 too low D) understated by $8,000 too high Choose one answer. a. Option A b. Option B c. Option C d. Option D


Question 14 Marks: 2 Which of the following steps are required to adjust LIFO to FIFO? Choose one answera. Inventory needs to be calculated as reported LIFO inventory plus LIFO reserve. b. Increase deferred tax payable by LIFO reserve times Tax rate. c. Retained earnings need to be calculated as reported retained earnings plus LIFO reserve times (1 – Tax rate). d. All of the above.


Question 15 Marks: 2 Target Inc. has 30M shares outstanding and trades at $50 per share. Target has net identifiable assets with a book value of $1,000M and a fair value of $1,200M. Acquirer Corporation purchases all of Target Inc. stock for $60 per share. How much will Acquirer record as goodwill upon acquiring Target? Choose one answer. a. 300M b. 500M c. 600M d. 800M


Question 16 Marks: 2 Which of the following is not an effect of capitalization? Choose one answer. a. Capitalization usually reduces net income. b. Capitalization usually yields a smoother net income. c. Capitalization usually decreases the volatility of the return on investment. d. Capitalization usually increases net income.


Question 17 Marks: 2 Look Good Corporation has current assets of $1.1M and current liabilities of $1M. It is close to year-end and it would like to increase its current ratio. Which of the following will achieve this? Choose one answer. a. Encourage customers to pay their bills more quickly. b. Increase short-term borrowings by $0.1M. c. Sold building for $0.2M in cash. d. Liquidate some of its trading marketable securities.


Question 18 Marks: 2 Securitization through the use of a properly structured SPE may result in the following benefits to the company: I. Remove receivables from the balance sheet. II. Remove debt from the balance sheet. III. Lower financing costs. IV. Recognize gains on the sale of assets to the SPE. Choose one answer. a. I, II, III and IV b. I, II and III c. I and IV d. II and III


Question 19 Marks: 2 Trading Marketable Securities: Choose one answer. a. are considered non-current assets. b. are recorded at amortized cost. c. are marked to the lower of cost or market each accounting period. d. are marked to market each accounting period.


Question 20 Marks: 2 The classification of marketable equity securities as trading or available-for-sale is determined by: Choose one answer. a. management’s intent regarding the disposition of the securities. b. when the securities mature. c. whether the current assets are greater or less than the current liabilities. d. whether management wants to mark them to market or not.


Question 21 Marks: 2 The equity method of accounting for investments requires: Choose one answer. a. Investment should be marked to market each accounting period. b. Pro-rata share of investee’s earnings should be recorded as investment income. c. Company should not have significant influence over investee. d. Goodwill related to purchase of investee stock to be recorded separately on balance sheet.


Question 22 Marks: 2 Agwen Corporation owns 25% of the shares of Bronwo Corporation, which traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Which method is Agwen most likely to use to account for this investment? Choose one answer. a. Cost method b. Market method c. Equity method d. Consolidation method


Question 23 Marks: 2 Which of the following is incorrect? An analyst should be aware of the following when analyzing a company that has significant investments recorded using the equity method: Choose one answer. a. Cash flow received from investee may be substantially different from investment income recorded. b. As investee’s liabilities are not recorded on the company’s balance sheet, there may be significant off-balance-sheet financing.c. They must mark investment in investee to market even though there may be no ready market in which they can sell their investment. d. Company must record pro rata share of investee’s earnings, which may not be well correlated with changes in market value of investee.


Question 24 Marks: 2 When accounting for an investment under the equity method, what situations may reduce the carrying value of the investment? I. Investee experiences significant losses. II. Investee distributes dividends in excess of earnings. III. Investee sells additional shares for less than book value. IV. Investee engages in a stock split. Choose one answer. a. I and II b. II and IV c. I, II and III d. I, III and IV


Question 25 Marks: 2 Which of the following is allowed to be reported on fair value basis under SFAS 159? Choose one answer. a. Investment in subsidiaries that need to be consolidated b. Lease assets and obligations c. Derivatives d. Postretirement benefit assets and obligations.

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Why is time important to competitive advantage? Indentify and explain six key contributions that speed Answer

Why is time important to competitive advantage? Indentify and explain six key contributions that speed can make to logistics and supply chain strategy. Document your sources. Respond to at least two of your fellow classmates’ postings.


A definition recently proposed by the Institute of Logistics states that: Logistics is the time-related positioning of resources. Experience indicates that major benefits can be derived by focusing on the effective management of the key resources of the business. The key to success involves understanding what constitutes best practice in management of these resources with respect to time and how this can be applied, given the unique characteristics of a particular business. By viewing logistics as a time-based strategy many benefits can be obtained. An overview of the strategic issues based on experience with partner companies at the Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick is presented. Tools and measures used for re-engineering the supply chain through the use of time are discussed, and a brief example demonstrating the success of this approach is given. (Wilding and Newton 1996)

Experience indicates that major benefits can be derived by focusing on the effective management of the key resources of the business. The key to success involves understanding what constitutes best practice in management of these resources with respect to time and how this can be applied, given the unique characteristics of a particular business. As Henry Ford said when comparing the management of the material resource with time: “Time waste differs from material waste in that there can be no salvage”.

The search for speed has become the latest initiative in the pursuit of competitive advantage. Customers are taking low cost and higher quality for granted, moving their attention to the availability of the product as soon as the need arises. This effect flows on from the service or retail end of the value chain through the supply chain and into the arena of new product development. The increased change in the external environment is forcing businesses to become much more agile in changing their products and processes to extend their capabilities.

Things that can help improve logistics and supply chain strategy.

  • Improved sales forecasting allows for planning process to be more accurate which in return allows organization to make the right product at the right time and cost.
  • Manage your inventory to minimum levels. Improve warehouse cost, makes organization function more efficiently and drives improved fill rate. To do this you must have flawless forecasting from sales.
  • By utilizing links to your customer via EDI or Internet access, the order management process can eliminate certain steps and the lead-time can be reduced from days to minutes, while at the same time the accuracy increases. The result is a faster, more accurate process that requires less capacity to perform.
  • Bar coding implementation increases the speed and accuracy of the warehouse operation, reduces the risk of picking the wrong products and increases the inventory accuracy.
  • The inventory management function can link all aspects of the distribution operation together and avoid such decisions as choosing a lower-cost carrier with a lower performance. In this example, the increased inventory requirements and their associated costs are likely to be more than you will save in transportation costs, while the reliability of delivery to the customer will most probably deteriorate. · Continue to evaluate every step of the value chain to look for further opportunities every day! Never be satisfied with the improvements made, look how to make it better!



Harrison, A. & van Hoek, R. (2011). Logistics management and strategy: Competing through the supply chain (4th ed).  London, England: Prentice Hall Financial Times. ISBN: 978-0-273-73022-4

Wilding, R. D., & Newton, J. M. (1996). Enabling time-based strategy through logistics – using time to competitive advantage. Logistics Information Management, 9(1), 32-38. Retrieved from


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It is discovered that 2 weeks before the Ellen show, her partner had sold $2 million Answer

It is discovered that 2 weeks before the Ellen show, her partner had sold $2 million in JOSB stock (at a gain of about $2,200). The morning after Ellen’s show, Ellen’s partner shorted the JOSB stock (which is a bet that the price will go down), and she made another $210,000 from that trade. The swing in the price was not 100% directly tied to Ellen’s comments, as JOSB had issued a recall of their white, long-sleeved shirts when they were found to have been sewed with brown thread, making them unwearable. Ellen’s partner’s previous trading activity shows that she made it a normal practice to “vigorously trade” the stock of any company with which Ellen did business. A review of her trading activity for the past year showed that she had bought and sold JOSB stock 25 different times. Further, she typically used “short” sales when companies had issues with their products. Do you think the SEC will file anything against Ellen or her partner for these sales of JOSB? Is there any cause to do so? Analyze the transactions with respect to insider trading activity (based on what you know) and whether Ellen or her partner should be concerned. Is the prior trading activity a defense? Analyze and explain fully. (Points : 30)


One of the most important purposes of Section 10(b) and Rule I0b-5 is to prevent insider trading. Insider trading occurs when a company employee or company advisor uses material nonpublic information to make a profit by trading in the securities of the company. This practice is considered illegal because it allows insiders to take advantage of the investing public. Classical theory of insider trading targets a corporate insider’s breach of duty to shareholders with whom the insider transacts. The misappropriation theory outlaws trading on the basis of nonpublic information by a corporate “outsider” in breach of a duty owed not to a trading party but to the source of the information. Classical insider trading involves trading by a corporate insider on the basis of material and nonpublic information. The fiduciary relationship that an insider owes to shareholders “gives rise to a duty to disclose or abstain from trading” because of the necessity of preventing the corporate insider from taking unfair advantage of uninformed shareholders.

The fact pattern tends to suggests that the SEC will not file. First, the trading of the stock occurred the morning after the issuance of bad news regarding JOSB. Therefore, Ellen’s rant was public knowledge. Thus, there is no element of inside information. Second, Ellen Degeneres or her partner owed no duty to the JOSB corporation. The fact pattern states that JOSB used an Ellen look alike. There is no information that Ellen was associated with the corporation in any way. So Ellen owed no duty and, therefore, was not an insider. Since Ellen was not an insider, Ellen could not be found to owe a duty through the misappropriation theory. Third, Ellen’s partner regularly and vigorously traded the JOSB stock over the past year. So the activity by Ellen or her partner was not out of the ordinary. This would be a defense to insider trading even if the trade occurred before the issuance of non-public information and Ellen were an insider. Though, the material component of insider trading is satisfied since a reasonable trader would figure a negative statement from Ellen would hurt a company that was using an Ellen look alike and marketed to the gay and cross dressing community. However, since the other elements fail, there is no insider trading and no SEC filing against Ellen can be considered.

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To what extent does art respond to, or is shaped by, the technology that enables it Answer

We normally think of the arts as very different from technologies in spite of the fact that art (with perhaps a few exceptions) is practiced with the help of technology. This practice creates interdependence between technology and art. To what extent does art respond to, or is shaped by, the technology that enables it? To what extent have advanced and accessible digital technologies, such as websites, digital photography, and YouTube, changed the relationship between art and technology? Are these technologies reshaping our attitudes toward artists?

A good question but to get to the heart of it you need to know something about the history of technology in art and artistic expression. The invention of writing changed story telling orally which was widely done before writing. New musical instruments like the piano changed music. Scholars observe that the invention of the camera changed painting and so on. Electric and electronic recording completely changed music and how it was consumed. Check out some of the historical changes in the arts to get a handle on this issue in discussing more recent technologies.

We should not limit our thinking about music technology to just our western cultural experience. Here are some different music technologies you might find interesting:

Surely art can’t be influenced by technology.

I would definitely have to say that those were some interesting clips although I could not access the second link, but as far as different from what we consider music for sure. And that’s the beauty I guess to hear and experience other forms of art and technology of other cultures that we would not normally be exposed to, but the technology allows us to do exactly that. It also is a very different view that I see now from understanding art and technology that it does go together and both make advances too, where anybody’s artistic expression can be viewed maybe something new or old.

After actually investigating each of the clips that were provided, I found them to actually to be very interesting to listen to, especially the Balinese Gamelan music. Although I could get the 2 clips of the second link to function properly, I found the first one entertaining and also different from the mainstream music I listen. Just by observing the instruments that they were using, they seemed to be quite simplistic in design, yet very innovative to produce the type of sound that they desired. I’d actually consider listening to it more often.

The accessibility and convenience of digital music/video today are some factors that have changed the relationship between art and technology. Before the Internet, music/movies could only be purchased on plastic medium via the “Brick and Mortar” business now it is primarily obtained via electronic/mobile-commerce in digital format (I-Tunes, Amazon, etc to name a few). The “Super 8” amateur films have been replaced with fancy digital, do-it-yourself, creations uploaded on multiple social mediums. Streaming Netflix and Pay-Per-View has also given audiences more options versus being limited to a traditional movie theater.

YouTube for example hosts an endless accumulation of free popular/mainstream music and videos as well as up-and-coming artists trying to get recognized (solo artists or bands). You can also learn how to play just about any musical instrument for free (guitar tabs, reading music etc) from personalized/uploaded lessons. YouTube also provides how-to videos for painting, drawing, etc. from beginner to advanced.   Discovering a new art (or artist) or learning “how to” is very effecient on the Internet.

Digital/Internet audio and video has surpassed traditional methods/customs of accessing the art of music or theater. Further it (i.e. YouTube) has provided society with a virtual, high-tech, streaming medium that inspires/optimizes artistic collaborations, opportunities and creations. These innovative changes from analog expression to digital expression have merged/enhanced relationships between art and technology onto a more convenient/accessible platform.

Most popular YouTube Videos:

A useful list of new delivery technologies, have these changed the content of the art form itself? As the question asks, have the new technologies shaped the art forms in new ways. 45 rpms changed music. Sound in film changed film. Photography changed painting.   Have these new technologies had no effect on art?

I would say that the new technologies have affected how art is made and distributed. It allows it to me more precise and allow mistakes to be corrected alot more easier.

It still takes the right talent and knowlegde to understand and make the bast art possible, it is just easier for more people to produce art that has a professional touch to it.

I’m not clear how these technologies are affecting the art itself. If you take the elements of film for example:

The form (or techniques) are still somewhat the same. Hold guitar with two hands, strum/pick the strings and create music. Hold paintbrush with one hand, dip in paint, brush across canvas and create picture. The basics are the same, but the advanced application(s) combined with the Internet have made the form better—efficient and improved processes with faster results.

For example, instead of writing/developing music with an entire band/orchestra etc., the artist or music company simply uses computer music composition software—or instead of scribing the music by hand it is processed via software/hardware. Photographers, painters or filmmakers can manipulate or create pictures using high-tech audio/digital software. Along with the professionals, amateurs can obtain software and develop their own creations. You can either go to Hobby Lobby (or wherever) or buy the tools of your trade/form or go online to buy software and do the same thing but in a more high-tech fashion. Either way, with whatever application—the Internet (with social medium) has created a worldwide forum of virtual collaboration and sharing. So the delivery of art has improved—along with the advanced techniques to create it and share it with the world.

45 rpm, 33 and 1/3, 8 track tape, cd   all affected the type of music, performed and recorded due for one thing to length of music availabe, 45 rpm for example were limited to about 3 minutes, hence popular songs had to be limited to that length.

     Sound in film, color in film, film quality etc allowed different elements of film to become more or lest important. But what about the newer technologies, has the safe of the art be affected, made better? worse?

I suppose you can keep on theorizing, philosophizing, drilling down answers or begging the question about the past, present and future of technology in the arts/entertainment world. You can have high-tech, expensive computers, software and cameras—or you can have a broken pencil and ½ a sheet of paper. Maybe technology changed the art format maybe it didn’t.   It really doesn’t matter because what has never changed in the myriad of technology achievements…is the individual ability or talent to innovate/visualize and express creativity in their respective art.

I would just like to add that innovation needs a tool to aid it usually. There is a limit to how much we can accomplish without help, and sometimes that new technological innovation can enable us to fully discover what we were unable to share before. I used to be very gifted with either pen, pencil, chalk, or charcoal. But sometime around the new millennium something changed for me that made it harder to rediscover that ability to take what was in my mind and express it in a visual medium others could appreciate. Thanks to the technological advances in distilling techniques for alcohol, I have been able to break down the wall that limits my ability to access my prior skill set and can again create beauty thanks to an inebriated state.

Art cannot be created without an artist free from inhibitions and the established limits of society.

It may be your opinion that it is not important whether technology affects the arts or not but that is what the question is asking (if I read your post correctly). I agree that humans have always been creative, but if mechanical/electrical recording has not been invented, you can’t write music for it no matter how creative you are. I movies have not been invented you can’t direct a film, if the electronic guitar or the saxophone has not be developed you can’t play them or write music for them. So I’m not sure that technology is irrelevant to the arts because they are creative. Each musical instrument in use today was at one time a technological innovation.   Musical notation which we take for granted today was invented at one time. To me this suggests that technology has always had an important impact on the arts. This question is asking if recent technology has had an impact on the arts.   I really do think this is hard to see and specify but that doesn’t mean its not a good question.

Your post really raises a critical issue in this discussion, I think we tend to miss the connection between what technology allows or constrains and what human creativity allows can do. Very insightful.

The biggest advancement that technology has given to art is the ease that we can enjoy it. No longer to we have to travel to muesuems around the world or spend large amounts of time in the library searching. We can instantly access art from our phones.

I think the new technologies have changed art. Because it is delivered in a whole new way, the artist and the audience have changed. Youtube is one example. How going viral has changed art talks about youtube, tumblr, and spreading art through the internet.

The first thing that came to my mind came before youtube and tumblr and instagram: the digital camera. This article says that there are 2.5 billion people that own a digital camera right now. Five ways the digital camera changed us. And we share all of our photos with each other. 10 of the best photo sharing apps for android Everyday pictures have come so far since I was a kid with my 110-film pocket camera! Remember this?

 (Yes I do remember Kodak 110…and even older versions)   You raise an important issue here. That the contemporary delivery systems have an impact on art not just in terms of distribution and consumption even due to the massive change in terms of how much “art” we are not exposed to and consume.  

I am very aware that some people do keep them, but it is not as prevalent as it use to be when people had to get actual photos developed. Now the inkjet cartridge manufacturers are really eating it up nowadays. The price that people go through to actually print is astounding.

that’s an interesting observation that it is thought of as a necessity to have a camera at all times – digital or on your phone. We have some pictures taken with a phone at times when we wouldn’t have taken along a camera in the old days. My niece has pictures of herself with the Manning family because they were at a table next to her in a restaurant at the Super Bowl last year, and with Michael Phelps at a mall. t also made me think about how many things we’ve become aware of because someone was taped or photographed without their knowledge – and how this has changed things. A good example would be the tape of Romney’s 47% comment at that fundraiser during the last election. Or Obama’s comments about some people clinging to their guns at a fundraiser during the 2008 primaries. You could make a good case that both these comments, never intended for public consumption, changed the political debate. In the case of Romney, it might have contributed to the election result. And I would guess it’s at least a possibility that in both cases, the person doing the taping was initially just trying to capture a famous person on their phone, not necessarily practicing “gotcha journalism.” Public people can have no expectation of privacy outside the confines of their homes anymore. We can all be paparazzi now. And cell phones have also captured crimes in process and helped in catching criminals. It’s a different world.

The new art that is drive by hi tech is video gaming. this is huge industry worldwide apparently. The article i found states this is currently $74 billion a year industry which is more than music and movie box combined. They expect to be at $90 billion by 2015. “There are big games businesses and successful one-man businesses. In theory anyone can join in. Distance is no barrier to international sales. Video games can be created in the lounge, with luck, sold over the internet and played on the run. No wonder the industry is spawning such breathtaking statistics.” The art of gaming The author states that video games give people ability to experiment with the world. The games contain all levels of art such as music, photo and art.

good reading here

The use of new technologies throughout history has always affected the art and artistic expression. Just taking the example of photography, it had dramatic effect in the world of artistic expression. At the beginning of the twentieth century, when photography prevailed as an important medium, painting underwent a dramatic change towards abstraction. In reaction to Edward Muybridge’s successful documentation of photographing a horse galloping, Thomas Eakins painted Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand, which portrays a horse galloping more in accordance with Muybridge’s photographs rather than with previous paintings of horses, where artists had only assumed the way a horse would appear in mid-gallop. Another advancement in science and technology that precedes photography and is undoubtedly connected to it is the implementation of the camera obscura in fine art. Similar to the photographic camera, the camera obscura creates a projection of light onto a dark screen, but without the ability to capture the image on a surface.

Today technology is transforming every form of art whether it is sculpture, architecture or other handicraft items. With the information revolution, the art form and artistic expression has been changed because of multimedia, virtual reality, and the Web. Internet platform such as MySpace or Napster is making the production, distribution, consumption or availability of music much easier. Various art forms can now be viewed on YouTube and many other websites. Using computer graphics, people can create truly marvellous images and animation movies are perfect examples of the same.


Eric Jones, Creating New Forms: Art, Technology, and the Imagination. Richard Stockton College of New Jersey.

Albergotti, J. Clifton. Mighty is the Charm. Boston: University Press of America, 1982.

“production, distribution, consumption or availability” are all important changes in art as well as other things but the question also asks how the new technologies have changed the art itself. You have some good examples of that for earlier technologies.  

Art has come a long way at one point, the color blue was bleeding-edge technology. A near impossible pigment to obtain, ultramarine could only be made using lapis lazuli, a rare semi-precious stone that most commoners — not to mention starving artists couldn’t afford. (This is why blue and purple are considered the colors of royalty.) When artificial pigments burst onto the art scene, suddenly skies were literally bluer and artists were faced with a whole new palette of choice This is what artists are facing now with the onset of new technology: more tools, more options, and in some cases, whole new ways of stimulating people’s senses. New York City’s Museum of Modern Art featured an Augmented Reality art exhibit in the fall of 2010 that asked museum-goers to use a smart phone app to view the semi-virtual exhibit. So, if nobody with a smart phone was on the 7th floor of the museum, to the naked eye, it appeared to be completely devoid of art.

I especially enjoyed the Mongolian throat singing! Just the exercise of being able to listen to these different types of music sitting at my desk underscores how technology makes art more accessible. You think back to when the wealthy “owned” access to fine art for all practical purposes – the symphonies in the concert halls, the commissioning of work by notable artists of the time, etc. The common person had few opportunities to be exposed to fine art. This changed with the gramophone, however you still had to be able to afford to buy one. Radio also made music more accessible to the average person. In its early days and to some extent still today, PBS has provided programming that gives access to great music and recorded live concerts that many people would not be able to afford otherwise. And the reverse is true. There’s a reason everybody understands what “starving artist” means. If an artist was not underwritten by a wealthy benefactor, there was little chance their work would become known or that they could earn a living with their art. So once again, technology has been a great equalizer, in this case for both the artist and the consumer.

Increased accessibility is certain an important issue in art consumption but the question also asks something else very important, have the different new technologies changed the art forms themselve, that is had an impact on the elements of the various art forms?

I did some more research and found some more interesting facts about how the changes in technology has impacted the world of art. For instance, the invention of portable tubes of paint in the nineteenth century encouraged artists to move their studios outdoors, thereby contributing to the Impressionist movement, which drew inspiration from the dazzling effects of natural sunlight and atmosphere. The invention of photography in 1839 spurred a different approach to painting. Impressionism became the opening volley of Modernism, the movement that overthrew the 400-year-old tradition of the Old Masters and perceptualism in Western art. This was the a revolution as radical for art as the Industrial Revolution was for technology.

If we look at the present time, we have examples such as computers assisting in projecting holographic images, and as virtual-reality technologies are being perfected, the creation of three-dimensional fictions are becoming possible. Meanwhile, the compact disc, digitalization, and video technology have altered photography in many ways. For instance, Kodak’s compact-disc photography which can hold hundreds of photographic images on a compact disc and can be displayed on TV has made traditional photographic negatives and prints obsolete.


Ptacek, Robin Thorne. (1994). Art of the twenty-first century. The Futurist 28. 1: 29.

Are storage and distribution systems the same as affecting the art itself?

Storage and distribution of the art forms are not the same as affecting the art itself in a direct way but the ease of access, compressed storage and distribution of art is resulting into creation of hybrid art form where the works of art is blending together and combining sound, light, painting, sculpture, or other media into a single creation. So, I am not sure if this would mean “affecting the art itself”.

Outside of new distribution and storage effects, what about when a novel is made into a film, or when a remake of a classic film is made. I know standard films sound dated, but take for example, John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. When the film was made in 1940 (only a year after the book was published), the film creators cut out and/or changed many of the scenes (the camp scene is much ‘kinder’ in the movie). How else can someone fit a giant novel into 2 hours of film?

Also, what about the remakes that modernize the film setting? Does anyone remember the 1990s movie based on the old Beverly Hillbillies TV series? The entire scene of the film is surrounded with new techno gadgets that were unheard of in the 1960s. There’s one scene in the film where Elly May hears a phone ring in the high school bathroom and at least 15 girls pull out mobile phones and hollar, “hello.”

Rotten Tomatoes – The Grapes of Wrath Movie

Rotten Tomatoes – Beverly Hillbillies Movie

Yes true. When one tries to change the medium or the platform on which the art was originally shared to something new, it would mean making sure that it is palatable to the receptor’s/audience’s aesthetic taste and can be appreciated by them in the new medium. Of course, expression of the art reaches to the viewer within the limitation of that medium. Obviously, trying to put everything out of a large novel into a film will make the length of the reel/movie unusually long. And the same applies to the remake of old Beverly Hillbillies TV series to a movie, there has to be some difference/better effects for the viewers to go and watch it on a large screen. Can we say that technology in this case is trying to extend the reach of the art through multiple medium to newer people.

In the middle 19th century, pianos, which had always been made one at a time by hand, were extremely costly. But about that time manufacturers began to mass produce pianos using contemporary innovative production techniques. Of course prices dropped dramatically.   It became the fashion that middle class families would have one of these cheap pianos in the parlor. Daughters were often trained to play them, not very well perhaps, but it was thought to be a suitable skill for a girl and a help in the marriage market.   For these girls to play the piano, it was necessary for a new type of piano music to be written. Something simple and easy to learn and play. You may have heard the term “tin pan alley”.   This location in New York City became a center for writing this mass produced sheet music, it was simple easy to play and responsive to the tastes of young females….and some older females for that matter.

Yes, in this case, surely, It would mean affecting the art itself. Tin Pan Alley was the name given to the publishing business that hired composers and lyricists on a permanent basis to create popular songs. The publishers used extensive promotion campaigns to market these songs to the general public in sheet music form with attractive covers. The song’s popularity was determined not by the number of records it sold but by the number of copies of sheet music it sold at that time.


They certainly changed the distribution of artist’s works Tannica. My question is would the songwriters not have written songs had it not been for Tin Pan Alley? Perhaps there would be thousands of notebook binders scattered across the country with hits that never would be (I imagine there are plenty of those irregardless).

Antique stores and malls usually have large numbers of these published songs for sale. They often have the picture of the a famous singer or song writer on the front. Highly collectable.

It seems that the drivers of art (imagination and creativity) really have never changed since the stone ages. It’s just the tools being used that are always evolving. My wife has a ‘Kindle’ that she swears by. The books contain the same narratives as the paperback version, but the medium has changed. Now it’s certainly disrupting the old brick-n-mortar stores of yesteryear. I personally prefer to read a physical book, but I’ll come around once the last bookstore closes its doors (if that should ever come).

I agree with you imagination and creativity has not changed a hole lot since the stone age. The technology we have today has changed things alot from the floor module tv’s to the flat screen. I have seen alot of things in my life time I remember when I was deployed to Iraq the way they live over there makes me free so blessed about how we have changed when it comes to technology.

It might be worthwhile to look up the earliest musical instrument. When did humans make the first musical instrument. What do you think it might have been?

So far that is likely the oldest found if we don’t count the human voice, rhythmic clapping and other uses of body parts

That sounds like it was a great experience, especially for a musician.   In this week’s lecture, the professor also talked about Sunstein’s article, and WikiArt. It does sound like it has similar elements to the festival you attended. Art as a community experience, dynamic, always in flux, with little concern about authorship. Nobody owns the “product.” I think this appeals to our “better nature.” Recently, my son-in-law was saying that he wouldn’t buy a device where he couldn’t use open-source software because it wasn’t democratic. (He’s down on Apple and high on android devices.) I’m a tech dinosaur so I’m not sure I understand what he was saying, but I think this applies to our discussion.

I wonder if both our sons are linked together somewhere out there on the net Doug. My 13 y/o is a member of many different gaming design communities. It all started when his grandfather sent him to a software design summer workshop at Duke university a couple of years ago. From there he took off. The really neat thing is how polite and diplomatic all of the members in the community are (from what I can hear in passing). There have been some bad apples from time to time, but the majority always steps up and corrects the undesireable behaivor. Not bad for a community of young teenagers, is it? Maybe these same people will figure out a way to solve the really big problems facing humanity (cancer, hunger, terrorism, etc.). I guess it’s a good start by creating groups who identify that badwill and bullying is not desireable, or ‘cool’ one bit…when the group gets larger, it becomes popular and more people want to get involved and the process becomes infectious.

An interesting observation, John, that the throat singer performance included interaction with a live audience. Most of our delivery technologies do not allow that to happen do they?

Art is definitely influenced by technology. I understand that art may not exist if we didn’t have the tools in order to create it. Much like a brick layer needs tools and natural resources to build a brick house or a wall an artist needs his tools and creativity to produce his works. He needs a paint brush or colors to blend and create his masterpieces. Art can change people’s lives and produce works that can astound generations of people 10, 20, 100’s or even 1000’s of years prior to our existence. I think art transcends humanity in this aspect. If a line of code is or an invention such as UNIX can change or impact our lives then I think we can also relate this development to art. It impacts and changes our lives. Facebook, digital cameras and other developments helped us find new ways to create art also. Technology in my opinion is like an artist’s paintbrush, he can use it to show us our world from a different perspective. Music artists can reproduce sounds and beats with technological instruments and digital clarity that couldn’t be experienced prior to advances in technology . One item that Wilson points out is that authenticity is lost when a work of art is copied and reproduced, the copy is exactly like the original and it is difficult to determine which is which (2013). A work of art can be copied into a string of binary or digital code and it can be reproduced infinitely. In this aspect technology can be somewhat negative in its influence of artistic authenticity.

Wilson, S. (2002). Intersections of Art, Science and Technology. Department of the Arts – Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). Retrieved January 29, 2013, from

Technology has deffinently had an impact on art. Even with the obvious improvement on instramunts that technology has brought many themes and genres that express technology in music, literature and paintings in their own way.

A huge one would be Sci-fi in which it shows alternate futuristic technologies as to what the author or artist has though it to be. Probably the most common series of this genre would be Star Wars and Star Treck, both showing how technology might be in the future, even though most of the technologies were too advanced at the times when they came out.

Another genre would be techno, in which it has used technology to create its own style of music.

A third genre would be Steam Punk, in which it shows technology in a more grungy yet styled way. Some Examples of this genre would be the game Borderlands.

how Sci-Fi is the result of new film. One of the earliest popular films was Georges Milies A Trip to the Moon in 1902. What is the difference with the “new technology”.

 Techno is an interesting example.

I believe that technology greatly impacts art. Art responds to and is shaped by the ‘age’ of technology. Take for example pre-Pixar we had ‘stick people’ animation (one of the first on the web was JavaSrcipt Tip of the Week – May 1996 … then as technology advanced, along came Pixar with their first animated movie The Adventures of Andre and Wally B (1984), and now we have evolving block-busters like Toy Story featuring Buzz Lightyear (created in 1995 by John Lasseter); and there was Avatar (created in 2009 by James Cameron). Technology’s expansion enables the expression of art to be unending, and one could say, truly magical.

I believe that these types of technologies, through advanced and accessible digital technologies, such as websites, digital photography, and YouTube are changing and reshaping our attitudes toward artists. The days of the use of pencils and paper are practically obsolete, now it is mostly computer graphics that are used to create these beautiful movies and broaden our minds to the capacity and capability of technology.

The stick men reminds me of a new marketing phenomenon involving video integrated with hand-drawn animation for marketing. It is literally the utilization of technology as a conduit to deliver a marketing message that is visually artistic, you have probably seen it on the web somewhere. I am very much interested in marketing so it captured my attention immediately. I think it is very fascinating and engaging. From what I am hearing, the impact has been great with many reports of increased conversion rates on sites that utilize this new technology. Check it out here:

Has technology affected the art of the novel? I don’t mean production and reproduction but the art of novel writing itself? I thought your interest in video games might give you some insight into this other art form.

I believe the manner in which the novel is put together may be slightly skewed by the wish of the authors to have their writing turned into a screenplay. I certainly don’t believe all novelists want their work to be adopted into the mainstream like George R R Martin’s “Song of Ice and Fire” series has (Before anyone asks, no, I have not actually seen the series, but I have been reading it since first printing. Not jumping on the bandwagon because of the cable series like so many others).

Other authors may want to reach a large readership, but would prefer their work not be acknowledged as something for the silver screen (is it even called that any more?), or a TV series. They merely wish for their work to be appreciated. I think something technology does aid in (though it could be a distraction) is when the writer is looking for more information on a subject they’re writing about, they can do a Google search, or reach out to people who have the experience in that specific area, in order to be more precise with their descriptions. I can see this as being a great tool for those writing in many different genres because along with the strengths of the technologies, there are also the weaknesses, such as Internet Trolls .

I think technology has affected the art of the novel. I think it hard to think of a new story that hasn’t been told. Technology give a new way to tell that story. An example of this is Star Wars if there was never a rocketship invented I think George Lucas would has never wrote a story about traveling to a new planet. I think technology affects the author’s imagination and that changes the art of a novel.

Often at about this point in the course I notice that the definition of technology is beginning to slip into a conventional terminology that seems to assume that “a technology” is a physical thing, a tool. .It’s important for us to remember that a technology is a set of skills and knowledge not a physical thing.   “Technology” is not synonymous with computers or electronics. rather a technology is the knowledge and skill to know how to achieve a desirable goal. If you think of it this way —a computer is a wonderful technology but only if you have language, understand how the system works, live in a world where you have electricity, and people who know how to build and repair them. Otherwise a computer has no value at all other than as a paperweight…if you have paper technology. So using technology in context as meaning a computer or video game is okay as long as we do not forget the basic definition of the term is much broader and much more significant for out understanding of how technology affects culture.

It is so easy to look at technology from a very physical dimension. When we do this we lose sight of the fact that technology represents the evolution, advancement, adaption and transformation of ideas into structured methods that change the way we do things (Winston and Edelbach, 2012, p. 2). This is my interpretation of what   Winston and Edelbach’s were saying as they attempted to defined what technology really is. When we look at technology from this perspective, it is so much broader.

I agree that ‘Technology’ has become a common term and is usually directed at things that are computer-related. Technology, as you mentioned above, is an advancement of knowledge in any given field – in computers, in medicine, in art. Technology, by definition, broadly refers to any advancement we make in any field.

I’m not sure about the idea of “advancement”. Compare a bow and arrow with a pistol. The bow and arrow are weapons probably more than 25,000 years old. Anyone who thinks they are simple to use has probably not used them seriously in hunting or competitions. Being able to use a bow efficiently and effectively takes much knowledge, skill and training. To shoot a pistol requires you to pick it up and pull the trigger. Not to deny that some skill and knowledge is involved in using a pistol but is shooting the pistol an “advance” for the shooter?   It is true that much more “knowledge” goes into producing the gun but not in shooting it I would think. Or is it more “advanced” to have a greater level of skill and knowledge to make it work?

First of all, there was a lot of knowledge that went into the manufacturing of bows, so much so that we lost the ability and knowledge required to manufacture bows to the standards that were prolific before the appearance of gunpowder, in fact Ben Franklin was reputed to suggest that with a regiment of longbow men victory on the British would be assured. Secondly, while it is true that pistols and rifles are more user friendly, their manufacturing can be extremely simple, to create a simple firearm all you need is a tube, a spring, and a simple firing mechanism (the Israelis manufactured a simple version of the Stan gun during their war for independence from sprinklers in simple machine shops). Becoming proficient with either is requires time, patience and a lot of practice, yes everyone can point a gun and shoot something which is harder to do with the bow, but snipers/professional shooters and hunters spend a lot of time perfecting their skill, the same as with archers.

When you ask are these technologies reshaping our attitudes towards artist? I think it is changing our attitudes as more and more availability of artist that we are not accustomed to come to light and shared with anybody that can access the internet or phones we open ourselves to it. Whether we enjoy or dislike what is presented I tend to think that we have a better and broader outlook to the world than ever before and I think it is great to show and share different cultures to kids in the classroom of for example a tribal group in South America to see their way of live, or types of music like the examples you have posted I think it just opens our eyes to the world more and I believe we become better as human beings to appreciate life itself.

There is a great correlation between art and technology in the automotive world. One of my favorite publicly traded companies happens to be an American auto maker, Tesla Motors. Tesla specializes in performance electronic vehicles. They have brought to market two successful products so far, the Roadster – which is based on the Lotus Elise, and the Model S, which is a four door luxury sedan. While the body of the Roadster was largely shaped based on a slightly more aerodynamic version of the Lotus, the Model S is something a little more special. The entire shape of the vehicle is formed by science. Because of it’s aerodynamics, it can acheive performance metrics that are attained by gasoline powered vehicles that generate much more power. Arguably, it’s even a very aesthetically pleasing vehicle. Check it out:

Great art is something that makes me feel a certain way whether that’s happiness, melancholic, excitement, etc. I’d agree that an original Rothko would be somewhat more special than a reproduction, but I’d never know the different unless I was alerted of it’s authenticity. Art, whether paintings, sculptures, music, or otherwise is still exceptional in reproduction.

Technology has really changed the way the world it self works, I remember when I was a kid I never heard of a GPS and now they come in just about any car, and now you can use you cell phone as a GPS. If you didn’t know where you where going you got a map and now its at your finger tips. Technology may have made the world faster and more productive when it comes to a business stand point but some times I think its ok to pull out a real map some times you now.

Nowadays technology has advance tremendously, I remember not owning a cell phone when I went to middle school I did not own a cell phone. Now the majority in elementary owns a cell phone. We depend on technology more than we use to.


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IT 237 Week 4 CheckPoint Absolute and Relative Links Answer

Identify, in a Microsoft® Word document, the difference between absolute and relative links. Include the exact tag you would use to specify a relative link from index.html to imgLake.jpg. Explain how to get from index.html to imgLake.jpg in a relative fashion. Use directional instructions, as you would to give directions to a physical location.

Include the exact tag you would use to specify an absolute link from index.html to imgLake.jpg. Explain how to get from index.html to imgLake.jpg in an absolute fashion. Use directional instructions, as you would to give directions to a physical location. Post your paper as an attachment in your Assignment section.


The difference between Absolute and Relative Links is the way you include a file on your webpage. The first one, the Absolute Link is used to point to the exact location of a file. If two Links are identical, that means that they point to the exact same fie. The second one, the Relative Link is used to point to a file or a directory in relation to the present file or directory. The best choice would be to use Relative Links since it gives you more control over the images and it really helps you with your Web site maintainance. Also, if you use Relative links it’s very easy to switch from one domain to another. You don’t need to change every src attribute from the img or style tab.

In our case the Web site has the following structure:

Root Directory: – IT237MyProject which contains the index.html file and the Images folder

Images Folder: – which contains our image: imgLake.jpg

If we use Relative to display the image we use the img tag. In the src attribute, we place the current location of the image in relation with the folder from which index.html is accessed. So the tag we will use is:

<img src=”images/imgLake.jpg” width=”…” height=””…”>

As you can see we first accessed the website, then the folder in which the photo is kept and after that we accessed the image.

If we use Absolute links we will point directly to the image:

<img src=”” …>. If somebody types the same URL in their img tag, the same picture will be displayed. However, if someone uses Relative Links, and types in <img src=”images/imgLake.jpg” width=”…” height=””…”>, the browser will load the imgLake.jpg from his images folder.The same link can be used by someone else, because it will not point to the same file. Different Websites, different files.